Search results “Definition law of the sea”
What is LAW OF THE SEA? What does LAW OF THE SEA mean? LAW OF THE SEA meaning & explanation
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ What is LAW OF THE SEA? What does LAW OF THE SEA mean? LAW OF THE SEA meaning - LAW OF THE SEA definition - LAW OF THE SEA explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Law of the Sea is a body of international law that concerns the principles and rules by which public entities, especially states, interact in maritime matters, including navigational rights, sea mineral rights, and coastal waters jurisdiction. It is the public law counterpart to admiralty law, which concerns private maritime intercourse. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or "UNCLOS", concluded in 1982 and put into force in 1994, is generally accepted as a codification of customary international law of the sea. Disputes are resolved at the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (or "ITLOS"), a court in Hamburg. In 2017, ITLOS celebrated 20 years of existence, during which time it had settled some 25 cases. The Tribunal has jurisdiction over all disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, subject to the provisions of article 297 and to the declarations made in accordance with article 298 of the Convention. The judge are derived from a wide variety of nations. With many people worldwide now turning their eyes to an ocean in peril, the Law of the Sea convention turned into a global diplomatic effort to create a basis of laws and principles for all nations to follow concerning the sea and everything it held. The result: A 1982 oceanic constitution, called the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Between New York, USA and Geneva, Switzerland, ambassadors from 165+ countries sat down to trade and barter for their nations' rights. The conference created the standard for a 12-mile territorial sea around a land and allowed it to gain universal acceptance. Within these limits, states are free to enforce any of their own laws or regulations or use any resources. Furthermore, each signatory coastal state is granted an Exclusive Economic Zone (or "EEZ"), in which that state has exclusive rights to fisheries, mineral rights and sea-floor deposits. The Convention allows for "innocent passage" through both territorial waters and the EEZ, meaning merchant ships do not have to avoid such waters, provided they do not do any harm to the country or break any of its laws. Military ships do NOT have the right to pass through another nation's EEZ unless permission is granted. This can cause difficulties for Russia, whose Baltic fleet and Black Sea fleet do not have unobstructed access to the great oceans. By contrast, the USA (which is not a signatory to UNCLOS) has free access to the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans, and to the Gulf of Mexico. Because the EEZ is so extensive, ITLOS may need to determine the ocean boundaries between states, as they did in 2012 between Bangladesh and Burma (Myanmar). As the Arctic Ocean becomes increasingly important for both navigation and resources, the USA may find it necessary to submit to UNCLOS to clarify the Alaska/Canada border. The Law of the Sea should be distinguished from Maritime Law, which deals with topics such as law of carriage of goods by sea, salvage, collisions, marine insurance and so on. In maritime law disputes, normally at least one party is a private litigant, such an individual or a corporation.
Views: 23799 The Audiopedia
How Maritime Law Works
Support Wendover Productions on Patreon: https://www.Patreon.com/WendoverProductions Maritime law is confusing, but interesting (I hope.) Last Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PsmkAxVHdM Twitter: http://www.Twitter.com/WendoverPro Email: [email protected] Attributions: South China Sea video courtesy youtube.com/militarytiger (Creative Commons License) Cruise Ship icon by Rohan Gupta from the Noun Project Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness Map by Alinor (Creative Commons License) Old Cruise Ship photo courtesy Roger W from Flickr (Creative Commons License) Foreign Coders photo courtesy Cory Doctorow from Flickr (Creative Commons License)
Views: 2623600 Wendover Productions
Commerce - Law of the Sea
The esoteric law of the sea - commerce.
Views: 88837 Chiron Last
Laws of the Sea - Understanding the 3 Conventions & 5 Zones
In this session the law of sea, United Nations Convention on Law of Sea (1 to 3) is explained by Dr. Manishika Jain. The third convention explains the 5 zones - internal waters, territorial waters, contiguous waters, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. Law of Sea @1:20 UNCLOS – I @2:08 Sea Baseline @4:33 Innocent Passage @5:51 Archipelagic Water @8:42 Exclusive Economic Zone @10:15 UNCLOS – III @12:22 Business @12:51 Environmental Conscience @12:53 Management of Resources @13:03 UNCLOS - [email protected]:18 #Environmental #Economic #Nautical #Innocent #Baseline #Continental #Territorial #Resource #Convention #Manishika #Examrace Join our fully evaluated UPSC Geography optional test series at - https://www.doorsteptutor.com/Exams/IAS/Mains/Optional/Geography/Test-Series/, Post evaluation get personalized feedback & improvement call for each test. IAS Mains Geography optional postal course visit - http://www.examrace.com/IAS/IAS-FlexiPrep-Program/Postal-Courses/Examrace-IAS-Geography-Series.htm For Maps and locations books click here - http://www.examrace.com/IAS/IAS-FlexiPrep-Program/Postal-Courses/Examrace-IAS-Geography-Maps-Series.htm CBSE NET Geography optional postal course visit - http://www.examrace.com/CBSE-UGC-NET/CBSE-UGC-NET-FlexiPrep-Program/Postal-Courses/Examrace-CBSE-UGC-NET-Geography-Series.htm
Views: 46358 Examrace
International Law of the Sea Introduction
Professor Surya Subedi introduces the International Law of the Sea course. More information on the course can be found here: https://london.ac.uk/courses/international-law-sea For more information on the Postgraduate Laws Programme, please visit our website here: https://london.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate-laws-llm
Law of the Sea Introduction and Overview
An introduction to the International Law of the Sea course at UCL.
Views: 41084 djaguilfoyle
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: origins and importance
A short history of the law of the sea in the twentieth century and the importance of UNCLOS
Views: 35213 djaguilfoyle
International Law of the Sea - Section C: The continential shelf & the Exclusive Economic Zone
Professor Surya Subedi the author of the study guide for the International Law of the Sea provides an introduction of Section C of this course.
Views: 1743 PGLawsUoL
International Law Explained
The depth and breadth of international law. Kal Raustiala: I think international law is one of these things that's a little bit like the air where it's everywhere. We don't really notice it so when you get on a plane and you fly to Europe the ability to get on that plane, cross over the air space of other countries, sometimes you see the little map when you're in the plane that shows you're crossing over Greenland or whatever, all of that is governed by international law in different ways. Different treaties are in place to take care of all the questions that might arise about aviation. So that's a really mundane example and then at the other extreme we've got much more contentious examples like--  Let's take the war in Iraq. So as most of us remember in the run up to the war the Bush administration went to the security council at the United Nations and tried to get a second resolution, and they're doing that because there is a legal framework in place that governs the ability of countries to enter in to armed conflict. So between those two bookends a zillion other examples but I think the thing to recognize about international law is in a globalized world, in an integrated world, you are constantly dealing with things that are crossing borders or you're crossing borders and international law is usually playing some role in shaping that. Question: What dictates international law?the most common thing are treaties and most of us are familiar with--  I mentioned aviation. There are treaties governing that. The UN itself was created by a treaty. So treaties are kind of the backbone a little bit like we think of statutes in the domestic context, but we do have something like common law. We call it customary law so a good example would be the law of the sea. There's all kinds of rules about ships and their ability to go on the high seas and who can board and where they can cross. Most of that is governed by custom and the idea is this custom kind of a cruise over time like the common law becomes entrenched and accepted as law, and then there is also courts. Right. So we have--  The International Court of Justice sits in The Hague and we've got a series of other courts. Right. The World Trade Organization has a court and so forth. So there is a set of judicial institutions much like in our domestic system so in a lot of ways it's a very similar system. There isn't I suppose a constitutional equivalent. There isn't a kind of grand governing thing but there are literally tens of thousands of treaties so a surprising amount of topics are covered.Question: Who are the governing bodies?There are a whole set of international organizations so from the United Nations being the most broad, the most elaborated, probably the most famous. The World Trade Organization is a little more specialized and then you've got dozens and dozens and dozens, thousands probably, of these subsidiary international organizations, international maritime organization dealing with law of the sea questions and so on down the line. And these have been created over the years. Some of them date back to the nineteenth century but for the most part that's a kind of twentieth-century phenomenon so one of the things we see in the last century or so has been one, the rise of these international organizations, the UN being the paramount example, and two, the use of treaties. Treaties existed in the past but when we talked about custom and common law that was much more common. Now we tend to codify that in to treaty. So those two things are sort of two major trends of the last century.Question: How will globalization affect international law?in the sense that you can have a treaty for example in which every country is a member of that treaty and so would be governed by that, and in fact we have lots of treaties that are pretty close to what you've got in virtually every single country. The Convention on the Rights of the Child I think is a good example where only the United States and Somalia when I last checked were not parties to that treaty. The United Nations Charter comes pretty close. Right. So virtually every country--  Switzerland for a long time was a holdout. Virtually every country is part of the UN system and so governed by the rules of the UN Charter so there is no barrier to that and we do see it.
Views: 105556 Big Think
Law of the Sea
Recorded with http://screencast-o-matic.com
Views: 30292 Esther Akinbolaji
Convention on the Law of the Sea - जानिए UNCLOS के साथ जुड़े कुछ महत्वपूर्ण पॉइंट्स
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Views: 34595 Study IQ education
The Law of the LAND vs. The law of the sea.
cliffs notes on the law of the land, the law of the sea, the strawman, sovereignty, legal and lawful, and the right to travel... (Recorded with http://screencast-o-matic.com)
Views: 1763 JayDreamerZ
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. You can support us by purchasing something through our Amazon-Url, thanks :) The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea , which took place between 1973 and 1982.The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources.The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced four 1958 treaties.UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to sign the treaty. ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- About the author(s): historicair 16:23, 22 April 2006 (UTC) License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (CC-BY-SA-3.0) Author(s): historicair (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Historicair) ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision. Article available under a Creative Commons license Image source in video
Views: 2954 WikiWikiup
Maritime Admiralty Law, Language Deception & The Importance of Words
Views: 431790 Bearded Heretic
International Law of the Sea - Section A: Evolution of the Law of the Sea
Professor Surya Subedi the author of the study guide for the International Law of the Sea provides an introduction of Section A of this course.
Views: 1445 PGLawsUoL
What Laws Apply In International Waters?
Pope Francis recently granted sainthood to two 19th century Palestinian nuns. So we were wondering what are the qualifications for becoming a saint? » Subscribe to NowThis World: http://go.nowth.is/World_Subscribe Learn More: Pope Francis Is Making Saints Out Of Two Palestinian Nuns http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05/13/pope-francis-saints-palestinian-nuns_n_7260252.html "Pope Francis will bestow sainthood on two Palestinian nuns on Sunday (May 17), a move that's being seen as giving hope to the conflict-wracked Middle East and shining the spotlight on the plight of Christians in the region." How does someone become a saint? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27140646 "Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII are to be declared saints by the Catholic Church." Is Mother Teresa's Miracle for Real? http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2003/10/is_mother_teresas_miracle_for_real.html "On Sunday, Pope John Paul II beatified Mother Teresa of Calcutta, bringing her one step closer to sainthood." _________________________ NowThis World is dedicated to bringing you topical explainers about the world around you. Each week we’ll be exploring current stories in international news, by examining the facts, providing historical context, and outlining the key players involved. We’ll also highlight powerful countries, ideologies, influential leaders, and ongoing global conflicts that are shaping the current landscape of the international community across the globe today. More from NowThis: » Subscribe to NowThis News: http://go.nowth.is/News_Subscribe » Like NowThis World on Facebook: https://go.nowth.is/World_Facebook » Connect with Judah: Follow @judah_robinson on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeJudah » Connect with Versha: Follow @versharma on Twitter – Facebook: http://go.nowth.is/LikeVersha http://www.youtube.com/nowthisworld Special thanks to Lissette Padilla for hosting TestTube! Check Lissette out on Twitter:https://twitter.com/lizzette
Views: 260173 NowThis World
What Are the High Seas? Why Do They Need Help? | A Whiteboard Explainer
Get the facts about the high seas—the two-thirds of our world’s oceans that are not under any country's jurisdiction. This quick whiteboard tutorial explains why these international waters are so important and how the United Nations can help protect high seas marine life and ocean resources. *TRANSCRIPT* Beyond the waters under the jurisdiction of coastal countries lies a vast region that few will ever see first-hand, but on which everyone on Earth depends. It’s known as the high seas and covers nearly half of the planet. These waters and the deep seabed that lie beneath them, were once thought to be empty— but they are actually full of life. Sea turtles, whales, sharks, and migratory fish spend much of their lives in these waters. They are also home to hydrothermal vents, unique seamounts and geomorphic structures, deep sea corals, uniquely adapted fish species, and tiny organisms—many of which have yet to be discovered. The high seas are vital to the global ocean ecosystem; providing much needed protein to a growing population. Nearly 10 million tons of fish are caught each year on the high seas—generating more than $16 billion once landed. And the fishing and shipping industries rely on the high seas to provide economic security and jobs. But the high seas are under threat. As shipping and fishing industries continue to grow and new activities such as rocket launches, power generation, aquaculture, and seabed mining emerge, the demands on the high seas are an increasing burden. While shipping, mining, and fishing are regulated by international organizations, there is still no management for many new activities, or coordinated governance of existing high seas industries. In June 2015, the United Nations agreed to begin negotiations over a new international treaty to protect high seas biodiversity. This treaty is the first of its kind and for how our valuable ocean resources are managed. The new treaty could allow countries to protect important and vulnerable parts of the high seas by creating marine protected areas and reserves. And it could require environmental impact assessments for commercial operations to determine when, where, and whether various activities should be allowed. Achieving a strong treaty will need the efforts of government leaders and officials from around the world—and broad support from those who make their living from the ocean, feed their families from it, or just love it. Now is the time to secure a robust new international agreement that ensures the health of the high seas for generations to come. For more information, visit www.pewtrusts.org/highseas.
Views: 6485 Pew
Law of the Sea | Short History | From Arbitrary and Colonialism to International Law and Legal Order
The law of the sea is a body of customs, treaties, and international agreements by which governments maintain order, productivity, and peaceful relations on the sea. Enormous international effort was needed to codify these into a generally accepted legal instrument. This was achieved by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Adopted in 1984 and put into force in 1994, it was described by the United Nations Secretary-General as “possibly the most significant legal instrument of this century”. It was ratified by 167 countries and the European Union. This is its story concentrating on the most important moments that shaped the evolution of international law: - disputes between early maritime powers, Spain and Portugal, settled by Pope Alexander VI and the Treaty of Torsedillas - the work of Hugo Grotius, Mare Liberum – The Free Sea, which set the basis for legal though, controversy and development - the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Expert: Prof. Dr. Andree Kirchner | Director Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) Bremen More info The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (A historical perspective): https://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_historical_perspective.htm#Historical%20Perspective Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements: https://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm Produced in the context of the German Science Year 2016*17 - Seas and Oceans of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Further information may be found at: www.isrim.de/scienceyear.
Views: 200 Elastic Mind
Something of great biblical significance is now being acted out on the world stage. A treaty has been in the process of being ratified. It is called the "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Once ratified, it will be able to rule on issues usually reserved for the local governments of each individual nation. It will effect national sovereignty, navigation rights, international taxation, the environment and energy production. The ancient Lex Mercatoria (Merchant Law) is being revised to prepare for the emergence of a world government, swallowing up the sovereignties of small nations and allowing for central control of all nations by an unelected elite. In the hands of a powerful, unelected few, it could threaten the long tradition of freedom on the high seas - A full 70 percent of the earth's surface. This brings a familiar Bible theme to mind. It is one of the most familiar prophecies in the Bible, a powerful visual image seen and recorded by the Apostle John, as he wrote the book of Revelation. His vision expands upon the book of Daniel, and brings perspective and detail to Daniel's "fourth beast," which represents the final, global world empire. In Daniel, the beast is placed in the context of the three beasts that precede it. In Revelation, it is given a recognizable form and a source of origin: "And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him" (Revelation 13:1-4). Daniel describes four world empires as four beasts - the lion, the bear, the leopard and a fierce, unnamed beast with iron teeth. Clearly, the fourth beast is the great sea beast of Revelation 13. It reaches it's peak of power during the approaching seven-year judgment upon earth known as the "Tribulation." THE WRATH OF GOD: THE GREAT TRIBULATION https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wog-ZopKt3k&t=18s The beast of Revelation is composed of all the animals depicted by Daniel, and is therefore, seen as the culminating phase of the Gentile world powers. Usually, the sea from which the beast rises is interpreted as the masses of people who inhabit the globe. In the following bible scripture, "isles" indicates "continents," "And say unto Tyrus, O thou that art situate at the entry of the sea, which art a merchant of the people for many isles, Thus saith the Lord God; O Tyrus, thou hast said, I am of perfect beauty" (Ezekiel 27:3). Or, as John writes in Revelation 17:15, "And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues." This symbol, in combination with another ancient image, yields a fierce and foreboding picture of the final great world power: "In that day the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea" (Isaiah 27:1). The defeat of this great sea monster has long been celebrated in Jewish lore. Daniel simply called him "dreadful and terrible," but nevertheless, he shall be completely destroyed at the conclusion of the Tribulation. John's beast gives us the final view of the leviathan. DO YOU BELIEVE IN DRAGONS? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ML5QfYXtW3E&t=295s Of significant and profound prophetic note to be observed is that the year 2007 saw the strong support of the Bush Administration and a receptive Democratic majority approve the Convention by the Committee on a 17-4 majority and “was primed for its first-ever Senate vote.” UNCLOS took a huge step forward, even though it is still delayed today. Stunningly, Psalm 107 contains a prophecy for this specific event in the year 2007 singling out those elite who are in power attempting to assemble a wicked system of global governance. Back in the 1980s, J.R. Church discovered that the psalms seem to have been encoded with allusions to modern events that happened in the specific year according to the number of the psalm. Going back through modern history, one can see that this is the case. In looking at Psalm 107, one can see the clues that allude to the emerging world government that picked up steam in the year 2007, the year number of the psalm. THE SEVEN-FOLD DEATH OF MEGALOPOLIS: GOD'S HIDDEN SIGN https://endtimesdarknessdescending.wordpress.com/2017/08/16/the-seven-fold-death-of-megalopolis-gods-hidden-sign/
Commerce - Law of the Sea
The esoteric law of the sea - commerce. Original: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XzBAFoCqtRc Chiron Last https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbtxFY_PvYcb0xVZwFLaidw Savage Reality Bitchute Channel: https://www.bitchute.com/channel/Te0nNgvYWDVn/ Savage Reality 2.0 (here on YouTube) https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0Wq... Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. Also for entertainment and educational purposes. All rights to the original works go to those that hold them, no copyright infringement intended. All material used falls under fair use of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998). (for commentary, criticism, education and satire.) #AdmiraltyLaw #etymology #Esoteric
Views: 431 Savage Reality
Modern challenges and the law of the sea
An overview of some topical issues relating to the law of the sea including: management of high seas fisheries, boundary disputes, weapons proliferation, piracy, human rights concerns, and information sharing. One common theme raised is the growing role of dispute resolution procedures. The slides (with full photo credits) can be viewed separately at: http://prezi.com/vupjg5d7wsfh/modern-challenges-and-the-law-of-the-sea/?kw=view-vupjg5d7wsfh&rc=ref-38396
Views: 4734 djaguilfoyle
What is FREEDOM OF THE SEAS? What does FREEDOM OF THE SEAS mean? FREEDOM OF THE SEAS meaning - FREEDOM OF THE SEAS definition - FREEDOM OF THE SEAS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Freedom of the seas (Latin: mare liberum, lit. "free sea") is a principle in the international law and law of the sea. It stresses freedom to navigate the oceans. It also disapproves of war fought in water. The freedom is to be breached only in a necessary international agreement. This principle was one of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points proposed during the First World War. In his speech to the Congress, the president said: Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. The United States' allies Britain and France were opposed to this point, as France was also a considerable naval power at the time. As with Wilson's other points, freedom of the seas was rejected by the German government. Today, the concept of "freedom of the seas" can be found in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea under Article 87(1) which states: "the high seas are open to all states, whether coastal or land-locked." Article 87(1) (a) to (f) gives a non-exhaustive list of freedoms including navigation, overflight, the laying of submarine cables, building artificial islands, fishing and scientific research. In 1609, Dutch jurist and philosopy Hugo Grotius wrote what is considered the foundation of the international legal doctrine regarding the seas and oceans – Mare Liberum, a Latin title that translates to "freedom of the seas". While it is generally assumed that Grotius first propounded the principle of freedom of the seas, countries in the Indian Ocean and other Asian seas accepted the right of unobstructed navigation long before Grotius wrote his De Jure Praedae (On the Law of Spoils) in the year of 1604. Previously, in the 16th century, Spanish theologian Francisco de Vitoria postulated the idea of freedom of the seas in a more rudimentary fashion under the principles of jus gentium. During World War II, nations started to expand and claim many resources and water territories all over their surrounding coasts. There were four international treaties meticulously drafted in the late 1950s and onto the 1970s, but the issues were not resolved between nations until 1982 when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was introduced. UNCLOS is a Law of the Sea treaty: an agreement of rights and responsibilities of nations and their use of the world’s ocean with guidelines of trade, environment, and the management of marine and open seas resources. UNCLOS replaced the four international treaties drafted in the late 50’s through 70's. As of 2013, 165 countries and the European Union have joined the Convention. According to International law, Article 92 of the convention which describes ships shall sail under the flag of one state only and, save in exceptional cases expressly provided for in international treaties or in this Convention, shall be subject to its exclusive jurisdiction on the high seas; however, when a ship is involved in certain criminal acts, such as piracy, any nation can exercise jurisdiction under the doctrine of universal jurisdiction. High seas were defined as any part of the sea that was not either territorial sea or internal waters, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Article 88 of the 1982 Convention states that the high seas shall be reserved for peaceful purpose. Many countries engage in military maneuvers and the testing of conventional weapons and nuclear weapons on the high seas. In order to deliver the right punishment to the right person or state, the ships need to be registered to a country to show proof of ownership. The owner of the vessel sometimes prefers to pay the lower registration fees by picking countries such as Panama, Bermuda, Italy, Malta and the Netherlands. According to Cruise Lines International Association, 90% of commercial vessels calling on U.S. ports fly foreign flags. To avoid the high cost with more rules and regulations, ships and tankers sometime prefer lower cost registration with a lower standard of inspection and regulation by picking a country that exercises less control over their registered ships, though many ships are owned by individuals or companies in another country (most commonly Japan and Greece) under a system called 'flag of convenience'. Registering a ship in Panama means that the ship is governed by the maritime rules of Panama rather than the ship owner's country.
Views: 1265 The Audiopedia
Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone (English)  l  Said Mamun
Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone Series - Geography of India Instructor - Said Mamun Paritime School Territorial Sea is 12 nautical miles from the main coastline Contiguous Zone is 24 nautical miles from main coastline. Exclusive Economic Zone is 200 nautical miles from the main coastline. NET / SET Geography I Part 1 — https://youtu.be/JuccDKs1xv4 Geography of India :The Western Ghat Mountain - https://youtu.be/ZC6OGEBGEtk Geography of West Bengal : Northern Mountain Region https://youtu.be/bLssLV1jFuQ Geography of West Bengal : Western Plateau Region https://youtu.be/WTazREC_-S0 Geography of West Bengal : Soil https://youtu.be/9O_ZcXlVWYY Geography of West Bengal : Soil (Bangla) https://youtu.be/dE5fIVVkv28 #Paritime_School #Said_Mamun Thank you for watching.
Views: 7482 Paritime School
Admiralty Law: Word Controlled Humans & The Law of Money - Jordan Maxwell
http://www.jordanmaxwell.com Admiralty Law: Word Controlled Humans & The Law of Money ✔ It's A Racket! - Jordan Maxwell There are the laws that you are familiar with, the laws of the land, and then there are the cryptic laws that deprive you of your very humanity. This presentation explains: Man as a "Word-Controlled Creature" "Civil Law vs. Admiralty/Maritime Law." Maritime/Admiralty Law Superimposed over Civil Law One's Mother as a Merchant Vessel Giving Birth as a Commercial Maritime Concept Hospitals and Energy Farms Spiritual Beings vs. Human Beings Freemasonry, Banking and the Court Connection. "Words can be used to tell others what an individual perceives; they can also be used to override perception, condition or destroy thought, and control humans. The processes that turn individual humans into monstrous group organisms is a significant aspect of history. Civil and religious groups, grow in power by the destruction of individual souls and control of individual will." John Harland The Admiralty Court Exists Because the U.S. is Under Martial law http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/master_file/martiallaw.htm THE UNITED STATES IS STILL A BRITISH COLONY http://www.apfn.org/apfn/bcolony.htm
Views: 358693 cosmiccontinuum
Plenary: U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea
American Geophysical Union presents: Science Policy Conference Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center Washington, D.C. Tuesday, 1 May 2012 8:30 - 10:00 am Ballroom B Moderator: Michael McPhaden, President, American Geophysical Union Panelists: Ambassador David A. Balton, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries, U.S. Department of State http://youtu.be/R5RG7vPEzFE#t=2m05s Rear Admiral Frederick J. Kenney, Jr., Judge Advocate General and Chief Counsel, U.S. Coast Guard http://youtu.be/R5RG7vPEzFE#t=22m27s In 2012, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea will recognize the 30th anniversary of its opening for signature to the Convention; as of today, the United States in the only major industrialized nation not to have ratified this treaty. The Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, including navigation rights, species protection, management of marine natural resources, and other issues. Join our plenary panelists to hear about the impact this Convention will have on our national security and economic interests, including the benefits of claiming an extended continental shelf.
Views: 2846 AGU
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea - A Kerkennah Fisherman
United Nations, New York, 24 May 2010 - This video on the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea will take you on a journey into the life of a fisherman from a small costal village in Tunisia. A trip into the workings of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. The Convention is one of the most comprehensive instruments of International Law. It covers fishing and shipping, pollution and conservation, piracy and maritime border. Often called a "Constitution for the Seas" it plays a vital role in our work for Sustainable Development and Peace. Film "Tunisia: Saving a Sea, Saving a Culture": The Oceans play an essential role in sustaining life, but marine resources are increasingly being depleted. That's what's happened in a small fishing village in Tunisia, where over fishing has destroyed people's livelihoods. We take you there to see how local fishermen are bringing back the fish and safeguarding an activity that has been passed through generations. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.htm This video is a production of the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (UN Office of Legal Affairs) and United Nations Television (Department of Public Information) Remarks by H.E. Mr. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon of the United Nations (pdf): http://www.un.org/webcast/pdfs/LOS_sg_remarks_april2010.pdf Remarks by Mrs. Patricia O'Brien, Legal Counsel of the United Nations (pdf): http://www.un.org/webcast/pdfs/LOS_legal_counsel_remarks_april2010.pdf
Views: 10090 United Nations
The Law of the Sea
The straw man is an artificial person. The straw man was created by law shortly after you were born via the registration of the application for your birth certificate. The name for the straw man is your name in ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. You will notice that the inscription on the birth certificate is your name in all-capital letters. The English language has precise rules of grammar that make no provision for writing proper nouns in all-capital letters. So, your name spelled with all-capital letters is a fictitious name. Your straw man has a same-sounding name as your name, but is an artificial entity which exists only "by force of or in contemplation of law." The all-caps name is not your "true name" which consists of the given (Christian) name plus the surname (family name), and appears with only initial letters capitalized. The all-caps version of your name is a TRADE NAME, the name under which you "do business." We may also say that the straw man is a "person" according to the legal dictionary. "Person. 1. a human being. 2. An entity (such as a corporation) that is recognized by law as having the rights and duties of a human being..." [Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th Edition] The straw man may also be said to be an "artificial person" which is also defined in the legal dictionary. "An entity, such as a corporation, created by law and given certain legal rights and duties of a human being; a being, real or imaginary, who for the purpose of legal reasoning is treated more or less as a human being. -- Also termed fictitious person; juristic person; legal person; moral person." [Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th Edition] A straw man may also be thought of as a "legal fiction." "Legal fiction. Assumption of fact made by court as basis for deciding a legal question. A situation contrived by the law to permit a court to dispose of a matter ..." [Black's Law Dictionary 5th Edition] As we explore further, we must distinguish between the straw man (an it or person), and the real, flesh and blood being (human being) which we will call a "man." "Man" has a legal definition. "A human being. A person of the male sex. A male of the human species above the age of puberty. In the most extended sense the term includes not only the adult male sex of the human species, but women and children. ... In feudal law, a vassal; a tenant or feudatory." [Blacks Law Dictionary, 5th Edition] So we conclude that "man" is a term of nature. But who created nature? Some would say God, others would say the Creator (a term often used by the founder of our country), while others might hold a different view. On the other hand, we see "person" as a term of the civil law. Who is the creator of civil law? "Civil law ... a rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state ... the civil or municipal law of the Roman empire." [Ballentine's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition] So kings, emperors or legislative bodies acting in a sovereign capacity are the "creators" of civil law. When our government acts as a sovereign, it is acting outside it's constitutional authority. So we see that a man and a person are very different terms identifying very different things. If you study Roman civil law, you will see that it originates and uses fictions of law -- that is, concepts that are contrary to the natural order of things, and based upon presumptions that are untrue. You will realize that this person recognized in the civil law is a fictional entity. You will come to see the vast difference between man and person. So the straw man is a person, a public name that is recognized in a civil society. We've mentioned "legal fiction" and "fiction of law", so let's see how these are defined. "Fiction of law. An assumption or supposition of law that something which is or may be false is true, or that a state of facts exists which has never really taken place. An assumption, for purposes of justice, of a fact that does not or may not exist. A rule of law which assumes as true, and will not allow to be disproved, something which is false, but not impossible." [Black's Law Dictionary 5th Edition]
Views: 4055 Chris McPhail
Public Forum Sept-Oct 2018 - Law of the Sea
Despite their reservations, Alicia, Josh, and Brett navigate the NSDA September/October 2018 Public Forum resolution on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. SOURCES CITED: UNCLOS Debate, an exceptional resource for pre-cut evidence on all things UNCLOS: www.unclosdebate.org Text of UNCLOS: http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf Text of 1994 Implementation Agreement: http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindxAgree.htm Tufts University, Law of the Sea – A Policy Primer: https://sites.tufts.edu/lawofthesea/ Hugo Grotius’s Mare Liberum: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mare_Liberum Pre-UNCLOS III Conventions: https://wcl.american.libguides.com/c.php?g=563260&p=3877785 JUSTIA on the Really, Really Basics of International Law: https://www.justia.com/international-law/ Customary International Law Summary and Bibliography: https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/research-guides/public-international-law/customary-international-law/#introduction Researching Customary International Law: http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Customary_International_Law.html The Diplomat July 2016, Of Course China Will Ignore UNCLOS: https://thediplomat.com/2016/07/of-course-china-like-all-great-powers-will-ignore-an-international-legal-verdict/ Maybe the U.S. is the Bad Guy: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/when-it-comes-to-the-war-in-the-greater-middle-east-maybe-were-the-bad-guys_us_59b1668ee4b0b5e531045248 Bello on Imperialism and U.S. Naval Power: https://focusweb.org/node/342 Hutchinson on Why Multipolar World is Safer than U.S. Hegemony: https://www.tbwns.com/2016/08/22/bears-lair-multipolar-world-may-safest-best/ Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: https://www.oas.org/legal/english/docs/Vienna%20Convention%20Treaties.htm Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act (DSHMRA) Summary: https://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/gcil_dshmra_summary.pdf Groves/Heritage on Why U.S. Can Mine Seabed Without UNCLOS: https://www.heritage.org/report/the-us-can-mine-the-deep-seabed-without-joining-the-un-convention-the-law-the-sea UNCLOS needed to protect undersea telecom cables: https://www.unclosdebate.org/argument/708/us-underseas-cable-industry-needs-unclos-protection South China Sea Dispute General Overview: https://www.cfr.org/interactives/global-conflict-tracker?_utm_source=1-2-2#!/conflict/territorial-disputes-in-the-south-china-sea China Statement on Hague Tribunal UNCLOS Decision: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/nanhai/eng/snhwtlcwj_1/t1379492.htm UNCLOS Accession Would Expose U.S. To Environmental Lawsuits: https://www.heritage.org/global-politics/report/accession-un-convention-the-law-the-sea-would-expose-the-us-baseless-climate Accession Would Not Expose U.S. To Lawsuits: https://www.unclosdebate.org/argument/854/us-would-not-be-exposing-itself-liability-environmental-damage-international-courts SEGMENT START TIMES Overview: 5:40 Inventory of Arguments: 26:07 Pro and Con Case Considerations: 51:15 Final Thoughts: 1:07:50
Views: 4854 Hail State Debate
The Science of UNCLOS
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or UNCLOS, is an international treaty that sets out the legal framework for ocean activities and boundaries. In 2003, the Government of Canada set out to collect the scientific evidence needed to define our extended continental shelf. But, how do we measure and define land that is hidden deep under water or ice?
What is TRANSIT PASSAGE? What does TRANSIT PASSAGE mean? TRANSIT PASSAGE meaning & explanation
What is TRANSIT PASSAGE? What does TRANSIT PASSAGE mean? TRANSIT PASSAGE meaning - TRANSIT PASSAGE definition - TRANSIT PASSAGE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Transit passage is a concept of the Law of the Sea, which allows a vessel or aircraft the freedom of navigation or overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of a strait between one part of the high seas or exclusive economic zone and another. The requirement of continuous and expeditious transit does not preclude passage through the strait for the purpose of entering, leaving or returning from a state bordering the strait, subject to the conditions of entry to that state. This navigation rule is codified in Part III of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Although not all countries have ratified the convention, most countries, including the US, accept the customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. This navigation rule took on more importance with UNCLOS III as that convention confirmed the widening of territorial waters from three to twelve nautical miles, causing more straits not to have a navigation passage between the territorial waters of the coastal nations. Transit passage exists throughout the entire strait, not just the area overlapped by the territorial waters of the coastal nations. The ships and aircraft of all nations, including warships, auxiliaries, and military aircraft, enjoy the right of unimpeded transit passage in such straits and their approaches. Submarines are free to transit international straits submerged since that is their normal mode of operation. The legal regime of transit passage exists in the most important straits for the international trade exchange and security (Strait of Gibraltar, Dover Strait, Strait of Hormuz, Bab-el-Mandeb, Strait of Malacca). Transit passage rights do not extend to any state's internal waters within a strait.
Views: 855 The Audiopedia
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea - ITLOS
La Commission Sous-Régionale des Pêches (CSRP) sur le processus de saisine du tribunal de la mer ( Spot version Anglaise)
Views: 980 Prcmarine
MASTERING CLIMATOLOGY IN 20 HOURS !! : https://youtu.be/UWB4USJAwvM HOW TO PREPARE GEOGRAPHY FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES PRELIMS 2018 ? Video link : https://youtu.be/UWH12hUc_ik Economy Prelims Telegram Channel - https://goo.gl/DAo5zp Prelims Telegram Channel Link : http://bit.do/neo-upscprelims To Know more about Focus Prelims : https://goo.gl/LGw1AE To Know more about our Current Affairs Plus : https://goo.gl/rv3kNn LAWS OF SEA of GEOGRAPHY - PRELIMS IMPORTANT MODEL QUESTION SOLVED. NEO IAS e-learning classes is an online program which aims to create CIVIL SERVANTS for the development of the nation by providing the video series of complete topics that are relevant for the CIVIL SERVICES (IAS/IPS) Exam.
Views: 3616 NEO IAS
Why hasn't the U.S. joined the UN's "Law of the Sea" convention?
Anchor Mike Walter discusses the issue of the US' refusal to sign on to the treaty with Myron Ebell, Director of the Center for Energy & Environment at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. Subscribe to CCTV America: http://goo.gl/tgGT98 Follow CCTV America: Twitter: http://bit.ly/15oqHSy Facebook: http://on.fb.me/172VKne »» Watch CCTV America 8:00pm -- 10:00pm EST daily «« Washington, DC (and greater area) • MHz - Channel 3 • COMCAST (Xfinity) - Channel 273 New York City • Time Warner - Channel 134 • FiOS (Verizon) - Channel 277 Los Angeles • Charter Cable - Channel 562 • Time Warner - Channel 155 Satellite Nationwide • DISH TV - Channel 279
Views: 3174 CGTN America
International Law of the Sea -- Introduction
Overview of International Law of the Sea. This is a course which is part of the Postgraduate Laws degree offered by the University of London. This course is comprised of 4 sections. Professor Surya Subedi the author of the study guide for this course provides this introduction.
Views: 2478 PGLawsUoL
MrsK - a Legal Perspective:  05 Law of the Seas
MrsK's discussion on the Law of the seas- How do the oceans get divvied up between the countries bordering the same sea area? -no copyright infringement intended- -rights go to Lulu and the Lampshades-
Views: 7074 MyLegalStudiesMentor
What is CONTINENTAL SHELF? What does CONTINENTAL SHELF mean? CONTINENTAL SHELF meaning & explanation
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for US WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CONTINENTAL SHELF? What does CONTINENTAL SHELF mean? CONTINENTAL SHELF meaning - CONTINENTAL SHELF definition - CONTINENTAL SHELF explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods. The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0.5–1°. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the name continental shelf was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs.
Views: 14575 The Audiopedia
Enslavement through the law of the sea admiralty maritime law
A short video explaining how the world has been enslaved through the seat admiralty maritime law
Views: 231 childrenoflightt24
What is ARCHIPELAGIC STATE? What does ARCHIPELAGIC STATE mean? ARXCHIPELAGIC STATE meaning - ARCHIPELAGIC STATE definition - ARCHIPELAGIC STATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An archipelagic state is any internationally recognized state or country that comprises a series of islands that form an archipelago. The term is defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in order to define what borders such states should be allowed to claim. In various conferences, Fiji, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Bahamas, and the Philippines are the five sovereign states that obtained approval in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea signed in Montego Bay, Jamaica on December 10, 1982 and qualified as archipelagic states. Archipelagic states are states that are composed of groups of islands forming a state as a single unit, with the islands and the waters within the baselines as internal waters. Under this concept ("archipelagic doctrine"), an archipelago shall be regarded as a single unit, so that the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the state, and are subject to its exclusive sovereignty. The approval of the United Nations for the five sovereign states as archipelagic states respect existing agreements with other countries and shall recognize traditional fishing rights and other legitimate activities of the immediately adjacent neighboring countries in certain areas falling within archipelagic waters. The terms and conditions for the exercise of such rights and activities, including the nature, the extent and the areas to which they apply, shall, at the request of any of the countries concerned, be regulated by bilateral agreements between them. Such rights shall not be transferred to or shared with third countries or their nationals.
Views: 1842 The Audiopedia
Law of the land vs Law of the sea
You exit the law of the land and you enter the law of the sea when you sign to the social security card. Its as simple as that and you were tricked into it because there is no law that says you have to enter into these contracts.
30th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (1982-2012)
United Nations, New York, 18 May 2012 - 30th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (1982-2012) Oceans and Law of the Sea website: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm
Views: 6798 United Nations
LAWS107: International Law of the Sea // Dr Douglas Guilfoyle
The oceans are critical to States' interests and human prosperity, being a highway for commerce, a shared resource and a vector for threats to security. They cover 70% of the earth’s surface, are the highway for 90% of the world’s international trade and provide 40% of the protein consumed in the developing world. In this context, the law of the sea is assuming a new prominence in international affairs, from questions of environmental protection and offshore resource exploitation, to legal contests over disputed islands, polar resources and global-warming opened sea lanes, and even regarding the risk of maritime terrorism and smuggling weapons of mass destruction. Find out more about this module and the LLM Law programme at UCL Laws on our website at http://www.laws.ucl.ac.uk/study/graduate/llm-programme/llm-taught-modules/international-law-sea/
Views: 3299 UCL LAWS
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - 12 Sep 2017
Book Launch: “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary” (Beck/Hart/Nomos, 2017) Two weeks before its international conference “A Bridge over Troubled Waters”, the MPI Luxembourg is delighted to give the floor to Prof. Alexander Proelß (University of Trier) to present his new book titled United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary (Beck/Hart/Nomos, 2017). The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) entered into force in 1994 and has since been ratified by about 160 states, including all the Member States of the EU and the EU itself. The Convention defines the rights and duties of national states with regard to the use of the seas. UNCLOS consolidates customary international law and various Conventions previously adopted by the international community. This Treaty is often referred to as 'the constitution for the seas'. Prof. Proelß’ Commentary focuses particularly on the interaction between UNCLOS and the European legal order, for example in the field of the prevention or the reduction of environmental pollution and the fair distribution of natural resources. Lecturer: Prof. Alexander Proelß (University of Trier) Alexander Proelss is Professor for public international law and European Union law. He is the Director of the Institute of Environmental Law and of the Institute for Legal Policy at Trier University. He is also a member of the board of directors of the Centre for European Studies of that University. International and European environmental law as well as the international law of the sea constitute the focal points of his research. Alexander Proelss is a member of several national and international research consortia. He has advised State agencies and other stakeholder on many occasions and has taught courses on public international law, European law, constitutional law and domestic environmental law on a regular basis both within Germany and abroad. Interviewer: Prof. Alina Miron (University of Angers) Alina Miron is Professor of International Law and co-director of the Master of International and European Law at the University of Angers (France). She has also been Counsel and Advocate for States in a number of cases before the ICJ, ITLOS and arbitral tribunals. Her current themes of interest relate to the law of the sea, to proceedings before international courts and to the law of international organizations.
What is EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE? What does EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE mean? EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE meaning - EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE definition - EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters. Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state. A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea). Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone. The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century. Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947). It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted as: Part 5, Article 55 of the Convention states: Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.
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समुन्द्री नियम UNCLOS  LESSON 43
International Law of the Sea - Section D: The high seas, the sea-bed and dispute resolution
Professor Surya Subedi the author of the study guide for the International Law of the Sea provides an introduction of Section D of this course.
Views: 550 PGLawsUoL
International Law of the Sea - Section B Baselines, the territorial sea and the contigious zone
Professor Surya Subedi the author of the study guide for the International Law of the Sea provides an introduction of Section B of this course.
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UNCLOS lecture
Lecture on the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention 1982 (UNCLOS) delivered at the University of Queensland, Australia, in 2014.
Views: 15212 Chris McGrath
What is PIRACY? What does PIRACY mean? PIRACY meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
What is PIRACY? What does PIRACY mean? PIRACY meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation. Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates. The earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Privateering uses similar methods to piracy, but the captain acts under orders of the state authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation, making it a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors.(For a land-based parallel, compare the association of bandits and brigands who ambush travelers in mountain passes.) Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, Madagascar, the Gulf of Aden, and the English Channel, whose geographic strictures facilitated pirate attacks. While the term can include acts committed in the air, on land (especially across national borders or in connection with taking over and robbing a car or train), or in other major bodies of water or on a shore, this article focuses on maritime piracy. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator (e.g. one passenger stealing from others on the same vessel). Piracy or pirating is the name of a specific crime under customary international law and also the name of a number of crimes under the municipal law of a number of states. In the 2000s, seaborne piracy against transport vessels remains a significant issue (with estimated worldwide losses of US$16 billion per year in 2007), particularly in the waters between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, off the Somali coast, and also in the Strait of Malacca and Singapore. Modern pirates favor using small boats and taking advantage of the small number of crew members on modern cargo vessels and transport ships. They also use large vessels to supply the smaller attack/boarding vessels. The international community is facing many challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice, as these attacks often occur in international waters.
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