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What is SECURITY GUARD? What does SECURITY GUARD mean? SECURITY GUARD meaning & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is SECURITY GUARD? What does SECURITY GUARD mean? SECURITY GUARD meaning - SECURITY GUARD definition - SECURITY GUARD explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A security guard, security officer, or protective agent is a private person who is paid to protect an organization's assets (property, people, money, etc.) from various hazards (such as waste, damaged property, unsafe worker behaviour, criminal activity, etc.) by utilizing preventative measures. They do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action to minimize damage (example: warning and escorting trespassers off property) and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate. Their international (at least in the United States of America and Canada) symbol of brotherhood is The Thin Green Line. Security officers are generally uniformed to represent their lawful authority on private property. Until the 1980s, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement (other than it being a private matter). This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.
Views: 89429 The Audiopedia
What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean? COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT meaning - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT definition - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities. Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development (www.iacdglobal.org), the global network of community development practitioners and scholars, as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organisation, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings". Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions. Community development as a term has taken off widely in anglophone countries i.e. the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand and other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. It is also used in some countries in Eastern Europe with active community development associations in Hungary and Romania. The Community Development Journal, published by Oxford University Press, since 1966 has aimed to be the major forum for research and dissemination of international community development theory and practice. Community development approaches are recognised internationally. These methods and approaches have been acknowledged as significant for local social, economic, cultural, environmental and political development by such organisations as the UN, WHO, OECD, World Bank, Council of Europe and EU.
Views: 14040 The Audiopedia
What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is ONCOLOGY? What does ONCOLOGY mean? ONCOLOGY meaning - ONCOLOGY definition - ONCOLOGY explanation - ONCOLOGY pronunciation. Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ????? (ónkos), meaning "tumor", "volume" or "mass". The three components which have improved survival in cancer are: 1. Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption; 2. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers and comprehensive diagnosis and staging; and 3. Treatment - Multimodality management by discussion in tumour board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre Cancers are best managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary tumour boards where medical oncologist, surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional and financial status of the patients. It is very important for oncologists to keep updated of the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common. All eligible patients in whom cancer progresses and for whom no standard of care treatment options are available should be enrolled in a clinical trial.
Views: 19244 The Audiopedia
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning
 
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What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT definition - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes. Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights. There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations. Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity. Empowerment movements, including youth empowerment, originate, gain momentum, become viable, and become institutionalized. Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making, and other methods.
Views: 5359 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning & explanation
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is HUMAN SECURITY? What does HUMAN SECURITY mean? HUMAN SECURITY meaning - HUMAN SECURITY definition -HUMAN SECURITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centred, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies. Alternatively, other scholars have argued that the concept of human security should be broadened to encompass military security: 'In other words, if this thing called ‘human security’ has the concept of ‘the human’ embedded at the heart of it, then let us address the question of the human condition directly. Thus understood, human security would no longer be the vague amorphous add-on to harder edged areas of security such as military security or state security.' In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canada's foreign policy, "three Ds", has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development. The emergence of the human security discourse was the product of a convergence of factors at the end of the Cold War. These challenged the dominance of the neorealist paradigm’s focus on states, “mutually assured destruction” and military security and briefly enabled a broader concept of security to emerge. The increasingly rapid pace of globalisation; the failure of liberal state building through the instruments of the Washington Consensus; the reduced threat of nuclear war between the superpowers, the exponential rise in the spread and consolidation of democratisation and international human rights norms opened a space in which both ‘development’ and concepts of ‘security’ could be reconsidered. At the same time the increasing number of internal violent conflicts in Africa, Asia and Europe (Balkans) resulted in concepts of national and international security failing to reflect the challenges of the post Cold War security environment whilst the failure of neoliberal development models to generate growth, particularly in Africa, or to deal with the consequences of complex new threats (such as HIV and climate change) reinforced the sense that international institutions and states were not organised to address such problems in an integrated way. The principal possible indicators of movement toward an individualized conception of security lie in the first place in the evolution of international society's consideration of rights of individuals in the face of potential threats from states. The most obvious foci of analysis here are the UN Charter, the UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and its associated covenants (1966), and conventions related to particular crimes (e.g.,genocide) and the rights of particular groups (e.g., women, racial groups, and refugees).
Views: 9832 The Audiopedia
What is SECURITY SECTOR REFORM? What does SECURITY SECTOR REFORM mean?
 
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What is SECURITY SECTOR REFORM? What does SECURITY SECTOR REFORM mean? SECURITY SECTOR REFORM meaning - SECURITY SECTOR REFORM definition - SECURITY SECTOR REFORM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Security sector reform (SSR) is a concept that first emerged in the 1990s in Eastern Europe. Though there is no single globally accepted definition, SSR generally refers to a process to reform or rebuild a state's security sector. It responds to a situation in which a dysfunctional security sector is unable to provide security to the state and its people effectively and under democratic principles. In some cases, the security sector can itself be a source of widespread insecurity due to discriminatory and abusive policies or practices. In this respect, an unreformed or misconstructed security sector represents a decisive obstacle to the promotion of sustainable development, democracy and peace. SSR processes therefore seek to enhance the delivery of effective and efficient security and justice services, by security sector institutions that are accountable to the state and its people, and operate within a framework of democratic governance, without discrimination and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law. SSR efforts target all state institutions and other entities with a role in ensuring the security of the state and its people including: armed forces; law enforcement and intelligence services; institutions responsible for border management and customs services; justice and penal institutions; and actors that play a role in managing and overseeing the design and implementation of security, such as ministries, parliaments, ombudspersons, human rights commissions and civil society organisations. In some contexts, it also addresses non-state armed groups and/or private security and military companies. SSR is both an operational as well as a normative concept. Featuring norms such as good governance, civilian oversight and the rule of law among its defining characteristics, its inclusion as a necessary component of international policies addressing post-conflict situations is becoming more and more commonplace. As such, SSR can be seen as a branch of an increasing international effort to secure human security. SSR is not limited to a single political situation, but rather can be introduced in various contexts. The circumstances under which reform efforts are undertaken can be classified as three very different reform environments: post-conflict, transitional and developed countries. SSR is most commonly introduced in post-conflict settings. However, its application insensitivity to such contexts has raised criticism. For example, Jane Chanaa argues that there is a concept–context divide because conceptualisation overshadowed the understanding on how the idea adapts to the local situations whereas Safal Ghimire notes that such chasm exists also because 'security sector reform' concept does not talk about reforms in the benefactors.
Views: 1339 The Audiopedia
What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning - CORPORATE LAWYER definition - CORPORATE LAWYER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A corporate lawyer is a lawyer who specializes in corporations law. The role of a corporate lawyer is to ensure the legality of commercial transactions, advising corporations on their legal rights and duties, including the duties and responsibilities of corporate officers. In order to do this, they must have knowledge of aspects of contract law, tax law, accounting, securities law, bankruptcy, intellectual property rights, licensing, zoning laws, and the laws specific to the business of the corporations that they work for. In recent years, controversies involving well known companies such as, Walmart and General Motors have highlighted the complex role of corporate lawyers in internal investigations, in which attorney-client privilege could be considered to shelter potential wrongdoing by the company. If a corporate lawyer's internal company clients are not assured of confidentiality, they will be less likely to seek legal advice, but keeping confidences can shelter society's access to vital information. The practice of corporate law is less adversarial than that of trial law. Lawyers for both sides of a commercial transaction are less opponents than facilitators. One lawyer (quoted by Bernstein) characterizes them as "the handmaidens of the deal". Transactions take place amongst peers. There are rarely wronged parties, underdogs, or inequities in the financial means of the participants. Corporate lawyers structure those transactions, draft documents, review agreements, negotiate deals, and attend meetings. What areas of corporate law a corporate lawyer experiences depend from where the firm that he/she works for is, geographically, and how large it is. A small-town corporate lawyer in a small firm may deal in many short-term jobs such as drafting wills, divorce settlements, and real estate transactions, whereas a corporate lawyer in a large city firm may spend many months devoted to negotiating a single business transaction. Similarly, different firms may organize their subdivisions in different ways. Not all will include mergers and acquisitions under the umbrella of a corporate law division, for example. Some corporate lawyers become partners in their firms. Others become in-house counsel for corporations. Others still migrate into other professions such as investment banking and teaching law. Some publications read by those in the profession include Global Legal Studies, Lawyers Weekly, and the National Law Journal. The salary of a corporate lawyer can vary widely: those employed by major international law firms ("BigLaw" firms) earn starting salaries of USD 180,000, which rise every year with experience (this amount excludes any additional bonus payments). Depending on the geographical location, the starting salary may be closer to USD 160,000 if the market is secondary. Attorneys employed at smaller firms tend to earn smaller salaries.
Views: 22190 The Audiopedia
What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning & explanation
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning - INSTRUMENTATION pronunciation - INSTRUMENTATION definition - INSTRUMENTATION explanation - How to pronounce INSTRUMENTATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Instrumentation is the development or use of measuring instruments for observation, monitoring or control. An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity, such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading hand-held thermometers or as complex as multi-variable process analyzers. Although instrumentation is often used to measure and control process variables within a laboratory or manufacturing area, it can be found in the household as well. A smoke detector is one example of a common instrument found in many western homes. Ralph Müller (1940) states "That the history of physical science is largely the history of instruments and their intelligent use is well known. The broad generalizations and theories which have arisen from time to time have stood or fallen on the basis of accurate measurement, and in several instances new instruments have had to be devised for the purpose. There is little evidence to show that the mind of modern man is superior to that of the ancients. His tools are incomparably better." Davis Baird has argued that the major change associated with Floris Cohen's identification of a "fourth big scientific revolution" after World War II is the development of scientific instrumentation, not only in chemistry but across the sciences. In chemistry, the introduction of new instrumentation in the 1940s was "nothing less than a scientific and technological revolution" in which classical wet-and-dry methods of structural organic chemistry were discarded, and new areas of research opened up. The ability to make precise, verifiable and reproducible measurements of the natural world, at levels that were not previously observable, using scientific instrumentation, has "provided a different texture of the world". This instrumentation revolution fundamentally changes human abilities to monitor and respond, as is illustrated in the examples of DDT monitoring and the use of UV spectrophotometry and gas chromatography to monitor water pollutants. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles. Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate a variety of other devices, and to support either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. As early as 1954, Wildhack discussed both the productive and destructive potential inherent in process control.
Views: 25855 The Audiopedia
What is STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM? What does STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM mean?
 
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What is STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM? What does STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM mean? STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM meaning - STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM definition - STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A student exchange program is a program in which students from a secondary school or university study abroad at one of their institution's partner institutions. A student exchange program may involve international travel, but does not necessarily require the student to study outside of his or her home country. For example, the National Student Exchange program (NSE) offers placements throughout the United States and Canada. Foreign exchange programs provides students with an opportunity to study in a different country and environment experiencing the history and culture of another country. The term "exchange" means that a partner institution accepts a student, but does not necessarily mean that the students have to find a counterpart from the other institution with whom to exchange. Exchange students live with a host family or in a designated place such as a hostel, an apartment, or a student lodging. Costs for the program vary by the country and institution. Participants fund their participation via scholarships, loans, or self-funding. Student exchanges became popular after World War II, and are intended to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. Student exchanges also increased further after the end of the Cold War. An exchange student typically stays in the host country for a period of 6 to 10 months. International students or those on study abroad programs may stay in the host country for several years. Some exchange programs also offer academic credit.
Views: 4895 The Audiopedia
What is CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY? What does CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY mean? CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY meaning
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY? What does CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY mean? CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY meaning - CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY definition - CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthropology. The study goes deeply into what makes someone commit a crime, but also the reactions after the crime, on the run or in court. Criminal psychologists are often called up as witnesses in court cases to help the jury understand the mind of the criminal. Some types of psychiatry also deal with aspects of criminal behavior. Psychiatrists and psychologists are licensed professionals that can assess both mental and physical states. Profilers look for patterns in behavior to typify the individual(s) behind a crime. A group effort attempts to answer the most common psychological questions: If there is a risk of a sexual predator re-offending if put back in society; if an offender is competent to stand trial; whether or not an offender was sane/insane at the time of the offense. The question of competency to stand trial is a question of an offender’s current state of mind. This assesses the offender’s ability to understand the charges against them, the possible outcomes of being convicted/acquitted of these charges and their ability to assist their attorney with their defense. The question of sanity/insanity or criminal responsibility is an assessment of the offenders state of mind at the time of the crime. This refers to their ability to understand right from wrong and what is against the law. The insanity defense is rarely used, as it is very difficult to prove. If declared insane, an offender is committed to a secure hospital facility for much longer than they would have served in prison—theoretically, that is. In 1981, one of the fathers of UK's criminal psychology – Professor Lionel Haward – described four ways that psychologist may perform upon being professionally involved in criminal proceedings. These are the following: Clinical: In this situation, the psychologist is involved in assessment of individual in order to provide a clinical judgment. The psychologist can use assessment tools, interview or psychometric tool in order to aid in his/her assessment. These assessments can help police or other competitive organs determine how to process e individual in question. For example, help finding out whether he/she is capable to stand trial or whether the individual has mental illness which means, that he/she is unable to understand the proceedings. Experimental: In this case, the task of psychologist is to perform a research in order to inform a case. This can involve executing experimental tests for the purposes of illustrating a point or providing further information to courts. This may involve false memory, eyewitness credibility experiments and such. For example, this way questions similar to “how likely would a witness see an object in 100 meters?” will be answered. Actuarial: This role involves usage of statistics in order to inform a case. For example, a psychologist may be asked to provide probability of an event occurring. Therefore, the courts may ask how likely a person will reoffend if a sentence is declined. Advisory: Here, a psychologist may advise police about how to proceed with the investigation. For example, which is the best way to interview the individual, how best cross-examine a vulnerable or another expert witness, how an offender will act after committing the offence. A major part of criminal psychology, known as criminal profiling, began in the 1940s when the United States Office of Strategic Services asked William L. Langer's brother Walter C. Langer, a well renowned psychiatrist, to draw up a profile of Adolf Hitler. After the Second World War, British psychologist Lionel Haward, while working for the Royal Air Force police, drew up a list of characteristics which high-ranking war criminals might display, to be able to spot them amongst ordinary captured soldiers and airmen.
Views: 28157 The Audiopedia
What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning, definition & explanation
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning - SOCIAL WORK definition - SOCIAL WORK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Social Work is both an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with helping individuals, families, groups and communities enhance their social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, and the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work is underpinned by theories of social science and humanitites and guided by principles of social justice, rights, collective responsibility, and respect for diversity, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges, socioeconomic development, social cohesion and enhance well-being. Their engagement with client systems create changes and with communities they may bring about social change. Social work practice is often divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; and macro-work, which involves working communities, and within social policy, to create change on a larger scale. Social work as such began in the 20th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing, but the practice of responding to social needs existed long before then, as evidenced primarily by a long history of private charities and religious organizations. The effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression developed and clarified popular understanding of social work into a conception of the field that mostly resembles the one that prevails today. Social work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines. However, although social work practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these social work organizations offer the following definitions. “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledges, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." - International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty, unemployment and domestic violence." - Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values, principles, and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services; counseling and psychotherapy with individuals, families, and groups; helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services; and participating in legislative processes. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior; of social and economic, and cultural institutions; and of the interaction of all these factors."- National Association of Social Workers "Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers often work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers.
Views: 21753 The Audiopedia
What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning, definition & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning DEUTERIUM pronunciation - DEUTERIUM definition - DEUTERIUM explanation - How to pronounce DEUTERIUM? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Deuterium (symbol D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or on a mass basis 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while the most common isotope (hydrogen-1 or protium) accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek deuteros meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934. Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 (protium) to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter (see references 2,3 and 4). However, other astronomical bodies are found to have different ratios of deuterium to hydrogen-1. This is thought to be as a result of natural isotope separation processes that occur from solar heating of ices in comets. Like the water-cycle in Earth's weather, such heating processes may enrich deuterium with respect to protium. The analysis of deuterium/protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogens). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium/protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Views: 117592 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean?
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean? INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW meaning - INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW definition -INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello). It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants. IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice". It includes "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law." It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations, and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning non-combatants. It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering. Serious violations of international humanitarian law are called war crimes. International humanitarian law, jus in bello, regulates the conduct of forces when engaged in war or armed conflict. It is distinct from jus ad bellum which regulates the conduct of engaging in war or armed conflict and includes crimes against peace and of war of aggression. Together the jus in bello and jus ad bellum comprise the two strands of the laws of war governing all aspects of international armed conflicts. The law is mandatory for nations bound by the appropriate treaties. There are also other customary unwritten rules of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. By extension, they also define both the permissive rights of these powers as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories. International humanitarian law operates on a strict division between rules applicable in international armed conflict and internal armed conflict. This dichotomy is widely criticized. The relationship between international human rights law and international humanitarian law is disputed among international law scholars. This discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While pluralist scholars conceive international human rights law as being distinct from international humanitarian law, proponents of the constitutionalist approach regard the latter as a subset of the former. In a nutshell, those who favors separate, self-contained regimes emphasize the differences in applicability; international humanitarian law applies only during armed conflict. On the other hand, a more systemic perspective explains that international humanitarian law represents a function of international human rights law; it includes general norms that apply to everyone at all time as well as specialized norms which apply to certain situations such as armed conflict and military occupation (i.e., IHL) or to certain groups of people including refugees (e.g., the 1951 Refugee Convention), children (the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child), and prisoners of war (the 1949 Third Geneva Convention).
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What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning & explanation
 
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THE BEST DAD IN THE GALAXY - https://amzn.to/2DlWeMl What is ANALYTICAL SKILL? What does ANALYTICAL SKILL mean? ANALYTICAL SKILL meaning - ANALYTICAL SKILL definition - ANALYTICAL SKILL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information. Such skills include demonstration of the ability to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their component parts. In 1999, Richards J. Heuer Jr., explained that: "Thinking analytically is a skill like carpentry or driving a car. It can be taught, it can be learned, and it can improve with practice. But like many other skills, such as riding a bike, it is not learned by sitting in a classroom and being told how to do it. Analysts learn by doing." To test for analytical skills one might be asked to look for inconsistencies in an advertisement, put a series of events in the proper order, or critically read an essay. Usually standardized tests and interviews include an analytical section that requires the examiner to use their logic to pick apart a problem and come up with a solution. Although there is no question that analytical skills are essential, other skills are equally required. For instance in systems analysis the systems analyst should focus on four sets of analytical skills: systems thinking, organizational knowledge, problem identification, and problem analyzing and solving.
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What is COMPARATIVE EDUCATION? What does COMPARATIVE EDUCATION mean?
 
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What is COMPARATIVE EDUCATION? What does COMPARATIVE EDUCATION mean? COMPARATIVE EDUCATION meaning - COMPARATIVE EDUCATION definition - COMPARATIVE EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Comparative education is a fully established academic field of study that examines education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights drawn from the practises and situation in another country, or countries. Programs and courses in comparative education are offered in many universities throughout the world, and relevant studies are regularly published in scholarly journals such as Comparative Education, International Review of Education, Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, International Education Journal,International Journal of Educational Development, Comparative Education Review, and Current Issues in Comparative Education. The field of comparative education is supported by many projects associated with UNESCO and the national education ministries of various nations. According to Harold Noah (1985), and Farooq Joubish (2009), comparative education has four purposes: 1. To describe educational systems, processes, or outcomes. 2. To assist in the development of educational institutions and practices. 3. To highlight the relationships between education and society. 4. To establish generalized statements about education that are valid in more than one country. Comparative education is often incorrectly assumed to exclusively encompass studies that compare two or more different countries. In fact, since its early days researchers in this field have often eschewed such approaches, preferring rather to focus on comparisons within a single country over time. Still, some large scale projects, such as the PISA and TIMSS studies, have made important findings through explicitly comparative macroanalysis of massive data sets. Many important educational questions can best be examined from an international and comparative perspective. For example, in the United States there is no nationwide certificate of completion of secondary education. This raises the question of what the advantages and disadvantages are of leaving such certification to each of the 50 states. Comparative education draws on the experience of countries such as Japan and France to show how a centralized system works, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of centralized certification. Critics of comparative education refer to it as Policy Borrowing. Comparative education is closely allied to, and may overlap with, international education, international development education, and comparative sociology. The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) was founded in 1956 to foster "cross-cultural understanding, scholarship, academic achievement, and societal development through the international study of educational ideas, systems, and practices."
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What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning, definition & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning - SUPERVISOR pronunciation - SUPERVISOR definition - SUPERVISOR explanation - How to pronounce SUPERVISOR? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A Supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term Supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour): 1. Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. 2. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees. If an employee cannot do the above, legally, he or she is probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as a work group leader or lead hand. A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety. A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are (1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have budget authority. Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working in the supervisor's group nor does the supervisor have the authority to terminate an employee. The supervisor may participate in the hiring process as part of interviewing and assessing candidates, but the actual hiring authority rests in the hands of a Human Resource Manager. The supervisor may recommend to management that a particular employee be terminated and the supervisor may be the one who documents the behaviors leading to the recommendation but the actual firing authority rests in the hands of a manager. Lacking budget authority means that a supervisor is provided a budget developed by management within which constraints the supervisor is expected to provide a productive environment for the employees of the supervisor's work group. A supervisor will usually have the authority to make purchases within specified limits. A supervisor is also given the power to approve work hours and other payroll issues. Normally, budget affecting requests such as travel will require not only the supervisor's approval but the approval of one or more layers of management. As a member of management, a supervisor's main job is more concerned with orchestrating and controlling work rather than performing it directly.
Views: 58527 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean?
 
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What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean? EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION meaning - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION definition - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met. If standards are met, accredited status is granted by the appropriate agency. In most countries the function of educational accreditation is conducted by a government organization, such as a Ministry of Education. In the United States a quality assurance process exists that is independent of government and performed by private non-profit organizations. Those organizations are formally called accreditors. All accreditors in the US must in turn be recognized by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI), which is an advisory body to the U.S. Secretary of Education, in order to receive federal funding and any other type of federal recognition. Therefore, the federal government is the principal architect and controlling authority of accreditation. The U.S. accreditation process was developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century after educational institutions perceived a need for improved coordination and articulation between secondary and post-secondary educational institutions, along with standardization of requirements between the two levels. Accreditation of higher education varies by jurisdiction and may be focused on either or both the institution or the individual programs of study. Higher education accreditation in the United States has long been established as a peer review process coordinated by accreditation commissions and member institutions. The federal government began to play a limited role in higher education accreditation in 1952 with the reauthorization of the GI Bill for Korean War veterans. With the creation of the U.S. Department of Education and under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies for higher education. In the United States, there is no federal government list of recognized accreditation agencies for primary and secondary schools like there is for higher education. Public schools must adhere to criteria set by the state governments, and there is wide variation among the individual states in the requirements applied to non-public primary and secondary schools. There are six regional accreditors in the United States that have historically accredited elementary schools, junior high schools, middle schools, high schools, as well as institutions of higher education. Some of the regional accreditors, such as AdvancED, and some independent associations, such as the Association of Christian Schools International, have expanded their accreditation activity to include schools outside of the United States.
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What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
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What is CULTURAL TOURISM? What does CULTURAL TOURISM mean? CULTURAL TOURISM meaning - CULTURAL TOURISM definition - CULTURAL TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Cultural Tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions. Cultural tourism has been defined as 'the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs'. These cultural needs can include the solidification of one's own cultural identity, by observing the exotic "other". Cultural tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The World Tourism Organisation, for example, asserted that cultural tourism accounted for 37% of global tourism, and forecast that it would grow at a rate of 15% per year. Such figures are often quoted in studies of the cultural tourism market (e.g. Bywater, 1993), but are rarely backed up with empirical research. A recent study of the cultural consumption habits of Europeans (European Commission 2002) indicated that people visited museums and galleries abroad almost as frequently as they did at home. This underlines the growing importance of cultural tourism as a source of cultural consumption. The generalisation of cultural consumption on holiday, however, points to one of the main problems of defining cultural tourism. What is the difference between cultural visits on holiday (cultural tourism) and cultural visits undertaken during leisure time at home? Much of the research undertaken by the Association for Leisure and Tourism Education (ATLAS) on the international cultural tourism market (Richards 1996; 2001) has in fact underlined the high degree of continuity between consumption of culture at home and on holiday. In spite of these problems, policy makers, tourist boards and cultural attraction managers around the world continue to view cultural tourism as an important potential source of tourism growth. There is a general perception that cultural tourism is ’good’ tourism that attracts high spending visitors and does little damage to the environment or local culture while contributing a great deal to the economy and support of culture. Other commentators, however, have suggested that cultural tourism may do more harm than good, allowing the cultural tourist to penetrate sensitive cultural environments as the advance guard of the mass tourist.
Views: 5746 The Audiopedia
What is MASS COMMUNICATION? What does MASS COMMUNICATION mean? MASS COMMUNICATION meaning
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is MASS COMMUNICATION? What does MASS COMMUNICATION mean? MASS COMMUNICATION meaning - MASS COMMUNICATION definition - MASS COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. In other words, mass communication refers to the imparting and exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people. It is usually understood to relate newspaper, magazine, and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film, even via internet as these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication or organizational communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large number of receivers. The study of mass communication is chiefly concerned with how the content of mass communication persuades or otherwise affects the behavior, attitude, opinion, or emotion of the person or people receiving the information. Mass communication is "the process by which a person, group of people, or organization creates a message and transmits it through some type of medium to a large, anonymous, heterogeneous audience." This implies that the audience of mass communication are mostly made up of different cultures, behavior and belief systems. Mass communication is regularly associated with media influence or media effects, and media studies. Mass communication is a branch of social science that falls under the larger umbrella of communication studies of communication The history of communication stretches from prehistoric forms of art and writing through modern communication methods such as the Internet. Mass communication began when humans could transmit messages from a single source to multiple receivers. Mass communication has moved from theories such as the hypodermic needle model (or magic bullet theory) through more modern theories such as computer-mediated communication. In the United States, the study of mass communication is often associated with the practical applications of journalism (Print media), television and radio broadcasting, film, public relations, or advertising. With the diversification of media options, the study of communication has extended to include social media and new media, which have stronger feedback models than traditional media sources. While the field of mass communication is continually evolving, the following four fields are generally considered the major areas of study within mass communication. They exist in different forms and configurations at different schools or universities, but are (in some form) practiced at most institutions that study mass communicatin Advertising, in relation to mass communication, refers to marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication. Advertising is the paid, impersonal, one-way marketing of persuasive information from a sponsor. Through mass communication channels, the sponsor promotes the adoption of goods, services or ideas. Advertisers have full control of the message being sent to their audience....
Views: 22872 The Audiopedia
What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning
 
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What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT definition - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) is a non-refundable tax credit in Canada for individuals who have a severe and prolonged impairment in physical or mental function. An impairment qualifies as prolonged if it is expected to or has lasted at least 12 months. The DTC is required in order to qualify for the Registered Disability Savings Plan , the working income tax benefit, and the child disability benefit. Families using a Henson trust, the Canada Disability Child Benefit other estate planning methods for children with Disabilities are not excluded from the DTC and should consider whether they qualify. The individual must be "markedly restricted" in at least one of the following categories: speaking, hearing, walking, elimination (bowel or bladder functions), feeding, dressing, performing the mental functions of everyday life, life-sustaining therapy to support vital function and the recently introduced cumulative effects of significant restrictions. The degree of disability must be approved by Canada Revenue Agency before it can be used, and this process requires the completion and submission of a form. The T2201 Disability Tax Credit Certificate form must be completed by a qualified professional related to the impairment such as a medical doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, psychologist, audiologist, or optometrist, in order to qualify as having a severe and prolonged impairment. The practitioner must certify on the T2201 form that the impairment meets specific conditions within the set category. The conditions vary depending on impairment. A document released by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) in response to suggestions they made to the House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Persons with Disabilities, attempts to assist medical professionals with deciphering what qualifies as being markedly restricted in the "mental functions necessary for everyday life". In 2005, the CRA introduced a new category of eligibility, "cumulative effect of significant restrictions". This category is useful for individuals who are disabled but not restricted enough to qualify as being markedly restricted. Since this was introduced in 2005,an applicant may only be able to recapture funds since that point. An applicant can file for the disability amount, back 10 years, due to the Tax Payer Relief Provisions in the Income Tax Act. The DTC amounts to C$7,687 (According to line 316) in tax savings, and if filed for the full 10 year period the possible tax savings are excess of 30,000. The DTC can be found on line 316 (for self) and line 318 (transferred to a supporting relative). If the medical practitioner charges to complete the T2201 form, applicants can claim this as a medical expense on line 330 of his/her tax return. In addition to lowering taxes, qualifying for tax credits can also be a requirement for applying for other money-saving vehicles such as the Registered Disability Savings Plan. If the person with the impairment does not have a taxable income, he/she can transfer credits to a supporting relative such as a parent, grandparent, child, sibling, grandchild, aunt, uncle, niece, or nephew. The disability amount can be transferred in either its entirety or as the remainder of what the dependent was unable to claim himself or herself. An Association of Canadian Disability Benefit Professionals was created to represent and serve a network of organizations that assist clients in registering for the disability tax credit, registered disability savings plan and other disability tax benefits. It was created by the twelve organizations specializing in this field including the biggest, the National Benefit Authority, they all committed to ACDBP Code of Conduct. The Association advocates on behalf of its members for policy and program efficiency at the federal and provincial level.
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What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning & explanation
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is BRAND AMBASSADOR? What does BRAND AMBASSADOR mean? BRAND AMBASSADOR meaning - BRAND AMBASSADOR definition - BRAND AMBASSADOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A Brand Ambassador (sometimes also called a Corporate Ambassador) is a person who is hired by an organization or company to represent a brand in a positive light and by doing so help to increase brand awareness and sales. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate identity in appearance, demeanor, values and ethics. The key element of brand ambassadors is their ability to use promotional strategies that will strengthen the customer-product-service relationship and influence a large audience to buy and consume more. Predominantly, a brand ambassador is known as a positive spokesperson, an opinion leader or a community influencer, appointed as an internal or external agent to boost product or service sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has expanded beyond celebrity branding to self-branding or personal brand management. Professional figures such as good-will and non-profit ambassadors, promotional models, testimonials and brand advocates have formed as an extension of the same concept, taking into account the requirements of every company. The term brand ambassador loosely refers to a commodity which covers all types of event staff, varying between trade show hosts, in store promotional members and street teams. According to Brain, the job of a brand ambassador was undertaken typically by a celebrity or someone of a well-known presence, who was often paid considerably for their time and effort. Nowadays however, a brand ambassador can be anyone who has knowledge or can identify certain needs a brand is seeking. The fashion industry however, solely rely on celebrity clientele in order to remain brand ambassadors. Furthermore, brand ambassadors are considered to be the key salesperson for a product or service on offer. They must remain well informed when it comes to the brand they are representing, due to their nature of being the go-to person when questions arise from consumers. The brand ambassador's job is to drive results through communication tools either publicly, such as social media, or privately including emails, messaging and further one-to-one channels.
Views: 24693 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning - INTERNAL AUDIT definition - INTERNAL AUDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. Internal auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization's governance, risk management and management controls by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. With commitment to integrity and accountability, internal auditing provides value to governing bodies and senior management as an objective source of independent advice. Professionals called internal auditors are employed by organizations to perform the internal auditing activity. The scope of internal auditing within an organization is broad and may involve topics such as an organization's governance, risk management and management controls over: efficiency/effectiveness of operations (including safeguarding of assets), the reliability of financial and management reporting, and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditing may also involve conducting proactive fraud audits to identify potentially fraudulent acts; participating in fraud investigations under the direction of fraud investigation professionals, and conducting post investigation fraud audits to identify control breakdowns and establish financial loss. Internal auditors are not responsible for the execution of company activities; they advise management and the Board of Directors (or similar oversight body) regarding how to better execute their responsibilities. As a result of their broad scope of involvement, internal auditors may have a variety of higher educational and professional backgrounds. The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) is the recognized international standard setting body for the internal audit profession and awards the Certified Internal Auditor designation internationally through rigorous written examination. Other designations are available in certain countries. In the United States the professional standards of the Institute of Internal Auditors have been codified in several states' statutes pertaining to the practice of internal auditing in government (New York State, Texas, and Florida being three examples). There are also a number of other international standard setting bodies. Internal auditors work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. Internal auditing departments are led by a Chief Audit Executive ("CAE") who generally reports to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, with administrative reporting to the Chief Executive Officer (In the United States this reporting relationship is required by law for publicly traded companies).
Views: 42592 The Audiopedia
What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning & explanation
 
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BROWSE The Internet EASY way with The Audiopedia owned Lightina Browser Android app! INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.LightinaBrowser_8083351 What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning - PANEL DISCUSSION definition - PANEL DISCUSSION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A panel discussion, or simply a panel, involves a group of people gathered to discuss a topic in front of an audience, typically at scientific, business or academic conferences, fan conventions, and on television shows. Panels usually include a moderator who guides the discussion and sometimes elicits audience questions, with the goal of being informative and entertaining. Film panels at fan conventions have been credited with boosting box office returns by generating advance buzz. The typical format for a discussion panel includes a moderator in front of an audience. Television shows in the English-speaking world that feature a discussion panel format include Real Time with Bill Maher, Loose Women,The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, as well as segments of the long-running Meet the Press. Quiz shows featuring this format, such as QI and Never Mind the Buzzcocks, are called panel games. Panels at sci-fi fan conventions, such as San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic-Con, have become increasingly popular; there are typically long lines to get access to the panels. The panels often feature advance looks at upcoming films and video games. Panels and the early screenings at conventions have been credited as increasing the popularity of blockbuster films in recent years. One of the earliest film panels was at the 1976 San Diego Comic-Con, when publicist Charles Lippincott hosted a slideshow—in front of a "somewhat skeptical" audience—for an upcoming film called Star Wars. Five years later, the Blade Runner panel at the 1981 San Diego Comic-Con featured a film featurette, before featurettes were popular. At the 2000 event, the The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring preview panel ushered in today's era of hugely popular panels.
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What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning
 
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What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION definition - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An alumni association is an association of graduates or, more broadly, of former students (alumni). In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni from the same organization. These associations often organize social events, publish newsletters or magazines, and raise funds for the organization. Many provide a variety of benefits and services that help alumni maintain connections to their educational institution and fellow graduates. In the US, most associations do not require its members to be an alumnus of a university to enjoy membership and privileges. Additionally, such groups often support new alumni, and provide a forum to form new friendships and business relationships with people of similar background. Alumni associations are mainly organized around universities or departments of universities, but may also be organized among students that studied in a certain country. In the past, they were often considered to be the university's or school's old boy society (or old boys network). Today, alumni associations involve graduates of all age groups and demographics. Alumni associations are often organized into chapters by city, region, or country. Alumni associations can also include associations of former employees of a business. An alumnus of a company is a person who was formerly employed by it. These associations are growing in popularity and becoming an important part of a personal business network.
Views: 3491 The Audiopedia
What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION definition - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. Vocational education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade and Technical schools. Until recently, almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.
Views: 39080 The Audiopedia
What is NATIONAL SECURITY? What does NATIONAL SECURITY mean? NATIONAL SECURITY definition
 
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What is NATIONAL SECURITY? What does NATIONAL SECURITY mean? NATIONAL SECURITY meaning - NATIONAL SECURITY explanation - NATIONAL SECURITY definition. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Views: 6083 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean? HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT meaning - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT definition - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws. HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees. In startup companies, trained professionals may perform HR duties. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. HR is also a field of research study that is popular within the fields of management and industrial/organizational psychology, with research articles appearing in a number of academic journals, including those mentioned later in this article. Businesses are moving globally and forming more diverse teams. It is the role of human resources to make sure that these teams can function and people are able to communicate cross culturally and across borders. Due to changes in business, current topics in human resources are diversity and inclusion as well as using technology to advance employee engagement. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing corporate knowledge.
Views: 58705 The Audiopedia
What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning
 
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What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER definition - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) is a relatively new nursing role that was developed in the United States to prepare highly skilled nurses focused on the improvement of quality and safety outcomes for patients or patient populations. The CNL is a registered nurse, with a Master of Science in Nursing who has completed advanced nursing coursework, including classes in pathophysiology, clinical assessment, finance management, epidemiology, healthcare systems leadership, clinical informatics, and pharmacology. CNLs are healthcare systems specialists that oversee patient care coordination, assess health risks, develop quality improvement strategies, facilitate team communication, and implement evidence-based solutions at the unit (microsystem) level. CNLs often work with clinical nurse specialists to help plan and coordinate complex patient care. The American Association of the Colleges of Nursing (AACN) delineates revised and updated competencies, curriculum development, and required clinical experiences expected of every graduate of a CNL master's education program, along with the minimum set of clinical experiences required to attain the end of program competencies. The Commission on Nurse Certification (CNC), an autonomous arm of the AACN, provides certification for the Clinical Nurse Leader. The AACN, along with nurse executives and nurse educators designed the Clinical Nurse Leader role (the first new role in nursing in 35 years) in response to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) comprehensive report on medical errors, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, released in November 1999. The report, extrapolating data from two previous studies, estimates that somewhere between 44,000 and 98,000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. Joint participation by education and practice leaders was instrumental in the successful creation of the CNL role. Among stakeholders joining the AACN on the Implementation Task Force (ITF) were the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) and the Department of Veteran Affairs (DVA). Within the healthcare system, the need for nurses with the skill and knowledge set of the CNL had already been identified and nurses were completing both academic and clinical work without receiving recognition for the advanced competencies being acquired. The first CNL certification exam was held in April and May 2007. In July 2007, AACN Board of Directors approved the revised white paper on the Education and Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader. Currently, 2500 CNLs have been certified and are able to use the credential and title of CNL.
Views: 1710 The Audiopedia
What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean?
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean? PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION meaning - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION definition - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct" Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration." The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.
Views: 47721 The Audiopedia
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning & explanation
 
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What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning - CREOLIZATION pronunciation - CREOLIZATION definition - CREOLIZATION explanation - How to pronounce CREOLIZATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that creolization also is the mixing of the "old" and "traditional" with the "new" and "modern". Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that creolization is a condition in which "the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures," and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms. According to Charles Stewart the concept of creolization originates during the 16th century, although, there is no date recording the beginning of the word creolization. The term creolization was understood to be a distinction between those individuals born in the "Old World" versus the New World. As consequence to slavery and the different power relations between different races creolization became synonymous with Creole, often of which was used to distinguish the master and the slave. The word Creole was also used to distinguish those Afro-descendants who were born in the New World in comparison to African-born slaves. The word creolization has evolved and changed to have different meaning at different times in history. What has not changed through the course of time is the context in which Creole has been used. It has been associated with cultural mixtures of African, European, and indigenous (in addition to other lineages in different locations) ancestry (e.g. Caribbeans). Creole has pertained to "African-diasporic geographical and historical specificity". With globalization, creolization has undergone a "remapping of worlds regions", or as Orlando Patterson would explain, "the creation of wholly new cultural forms in the transnational space, such as 'New Yorican' and Miami Spanish". Today, creolization refers to this mixture of different people and different cultures that merge to become one. Creolization as a relational process can enable new forms of identity formation and processes of communal enrichment through pacific intermixtures and aggregations, but its uneven dynamics remain a factor to consider whether in the context of colonization or globalization. The meeting points of multiple diasporas and the crossing and intersection of diasporas are sites of new creolizations. New sites of creolizations continue the ongoing ethics of the sharing of the world that has now become a global discourse which is rooted in English and French Caribbean. The cultural fusion and hybridization of new diasporas surfaces and creates new forms of creolization. There are different processes of creolization have shaped and reshaped the different forms of one culture. For example, food, music, and religion have been impacted by the creolization of today's world. Creolization has affected the elements and traditions of food. The blend of cooking that describes the mixture of African and French elements in the American South, particularly in Louisiana, and in the French Caribbean have been influenced by creolization. This mixture has led to the unique combination of cultures that led to cuisine of creolization, better known as creole cooking. These very creations of difference flavors particularly pertains to specific territory which is influenced by different histories and experiences.
Views: 2083 The Audiopedia
What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning, definition & explanation
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning - REDLINING pronunciation - REDLINING definition - REDLINING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In the United States, redlining is the practice of denying services, either directly or through selectively raising prices, to residents of certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeups of those areas. While some of the most famous examples of redlining regard denying financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care or even supermarkets, can be denied to residents (or in the case of businesses like the aforementioned supermarkets, simply moved impractically far away from such residents) to carry out redlining. The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a sociologist and community activist. It refers to the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sex) irrespective of geography. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods. For example, in Atlanta in the 1980s, a Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles by investigative-reporter Bill Dedman showed that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle- or upper-income blacks. The use of blacklists is a related mechanism also used by redliners to keep track of groups, areas, and people that the discriminating party feels should be denied business or aid or other transactions. In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer targets nonwhite consumers, not to deny them loans or insurance, but rather to charge them more than could be charged to a comparable white consumer. "As a consequence of redlining, neighborhoods that local banks deemed unfit for investment were left underdeveloped or in disrepair. Attempts to improve these neighborhoods with even relatively small-scale business ventures were commonly obstructed by financial institutions that continued to label the underwriting as too risky or simply rejected them outright. When existing businesses collapsed, new ones were not allowed to replace them, often leaving entire blocks empty and crumbling. Consequently African Americans in those neighborhoods were frequently limited in their access to banking, healthcare, retail merchandise, and even groceries." according to blackpast.org contributor Brent Gaspaire. Redlining paralyzed the housing market, lowered property values in certain areas and encouraged landlord abandonment. As abandonment increased, the population density became lower. Abandoned buildings served as havens for drug dealing and other illegal activity, increasing social problems and reluctance of people to invest in these areas. The film Revolution '67 examines the practice of redlining that occurred in Newark, New Jersey in the 1960s.
Views: 8995 The Audiopedia
What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is ENTREPRENEURSHIP? What does ENTREPRENEURSHIP mean? ENTREPRENEURSHIP meaning - ENTREPRENEURSHIP pronunciation - ENTREPRENEURSHIP definition - ENTREPRENEURSHIP explanation - How to pronounce ENTREPRENEURSHIP? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Entrepreneurship has traditionally been defined as the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which typically begins as a small business, such as a startup company, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire. It has been defined as the "...capacity and willingness to develop, organize, and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit." While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of businesses have to close, due to a "...lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis -- or a combination of all of these" or due to lack of market demand. In the 2000s, the definition of "entrepreneurship" has been expanded to explain how and why some individuals (or teams) identify opportunities, evaluate them as viable, and then decide to exploit them, whereas others do not, and, in turn, how entrepreneurs use these opportunities to develop new products or services, launch new firms or even new industries and create wealth. Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as "a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk". Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a small business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and business processes." Entrepreneurs tend to be good at perceiving new business opportunities and they often exhibit positive biases in their perception (i.e., a bias towards finding new possibilities and seeing unmet market needs) and a pro-risk-taking attitude that makes them more likely to exploit the opportunity."Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking." While entrepreneurship is often associated with new, small, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms, new and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary sector groups, charitable organizations and government. For example, in the 2000s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian, environmental or community goals. An entrepreneur is typically in control of a commercial undertaking, directing the factors of production–the human, financial and material resources–that are required to exploit a business opportunity. They act as the manager and oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual (or team) identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include actions such as developing a business plan, hiring the human resources, acquiring financial and material resources, providing leadership, and being responsible for the venture's success or failure. Economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) stated that the role of the entrepreneur in the economy is "creative destruction"–launching innovations that simultaneously destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches. For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur ... the ‘norm’ of a healthy economy."
Views: 65130 The Audiopedia
What is PUBLIC SPACE? What dos PUBLIC SPACE mean? PUBLIC SPACE meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is PUBLIC SPACE? What dos PUBLIC SPACE mean? PUBLIC SPACE meaning - PUBLIC SPACE definition - PUBLIC SPACE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A public space is a social space that is generally open and accessible to people of all levels of S.C. Roads (including the pavement), public squares, parks and beaches are typically considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as public libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas and greater limits upon use. Although not considered public space, privately owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising. Recently, the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space jointly used by automobiles and other vehicles. Public space has also become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, (urban) geography, visual art, cultural studies, social studies and urban design. The term 'public space' is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as 'gathering place', which is an element of the larger concept of social space. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry. Non-government-owned malls are examples of 'private space' with the appearance of being 'public space'. Public space is commonly shared and created for open usage throughout the community, whereas private space is individually or corporately owned. The area is built for a range of various types of recreation and entertainment. The physical setting is socially constructed, which creates a behavior influence. Limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior that is considered obnoxious or out of character (i.e., drug and alcohol consumption, urinating, indecent exposure, etc.)--and are supported by law or ordinance. Through the landscape and spatial organization of public space, the social construction is considered to be privately ruled by the implicit and explicit rules and expectations of the space that are enforced. Whilst it is generally considered that everyone has a right to access and use public space, as opposed to private space which may have restrictions, there has been some academic interest in how public spaces are managed to exclude certain groups - specifically homeless people and young people. Measures are taken to make the public space less attractive to them, including the removal or design of benches to restrict their use for sleeping and resting, restricting access to certain times, locking indoor/enclosed areas. Police forces are sometimes involved in moving 'unwanted' members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are implicitly excluded from some spaces. Human geographers have argued that in spite of the exclusions that are part of public space, it can nonetheless be conceived of as a site where democracy becomes possible. Geographer Don Mitchell has written extensively on the topic of public space and its relation to democracy, employing Henri Lefebvre's notion of the right to the city in articulating his argument. While democracy and public space don't entirely coincide, it is the potential of their intersection that becomes politically important. Other geographers like Gill Valentine have focused on performativity and visibility in public spaces, which brings a theatrical component or 'space of appearance' that is central to the functioning of a democratic space. A privately owned public space, also known as a privately owned public open space (POPOS), is a public space that is open to the public, but owned by a private entity, typically a commercial property developer. Conversion of publicly owned public spaces to privately owned public spaces is referred to as the privatization of public space, and is a common result of urban redevelopment. Beginning roughly in the 1960s, the privatization of public space (especially in urban centers) has faced criticism from citizen groups such as the Open Spaces Society. Private-public partnerships have taken significant control of public parks and playgrounds through conservancy groups set up to manage what is considered unmanageable by public agencies. Corporate sponsorship of public leisure areas is ubiquitous, giving open space to the public in exchange for higher air rights. This facilitates the construction of taller buildings with private parks.
Views: 2169 The Audiopedia
What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean?
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also be known as, or overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Views: 23935 The Audiopedia
What is MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR? What does MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR mean?
 
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What is MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR? What does MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR mean? MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR meaning - MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR definition - MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A mental health counselor (MHC), or counselor, is a person who uses psychotherapeutic methods to help others. The legal definition of a counselor, and hence the legal scope of practice, varies with jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions across the United States, counselors, marriage and family therapists, and psychologists have virtually identical definitions: evaluating and treating mental and behavioral disorders. In spite of such definitions, many mental health professionals reject the medical model (which assumes that clients are "disordered") in favor of broader viewpoints, such as those that emerged from systems psychology. MHCs work with individuals, couples, families, and groups to address and treat emotional and mental disorders and to promote mental health. Most mental health counselors in the U.S. work in outpatient and residential care centers, individual and family services, and local governments. They are trained in a variety of therapeutic techniques used to address issues, including depression, anxiety, addiction and substance abuse, suicidal impulses, stress, problems with self-esteem, and grief. They also help with job and career concerns, educational decisions, issues related to mental and emotional health, and family, parenting, marital, or other relationship problems. MHCs also continue to play a growing role in the military mental health crisis, helping military personnel and their families deal with issues such as PTSD. MHCs often work closely with other mental health specialists, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and school counselors. In the U.S. states, MHCs diagnose as well as treat mental illness, though the scope of practice for mental health practitioners varies from state to state. Licensing requirements depending on political division. In all states, mental health counseling licensure is required to independently practice, but can be practiced without a license if under close supervision of a licensed practitioner. Licensing titles for mental health counselors vary from state to state: Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC), Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC), Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC), and various forms of these titles may list differently per state statues. The title "Mental Health Counselor" (or variation thereof) is often a protected title and thus it may be a violation of state law for persons to hold themselves as such without a proper credential. A licensed mental health counselor holds a minimum of a master's degree in counseling or another closely related field in mental health care. After obtaining a master's degree, mental health counselors complete two to three years (depending on various state statutes) of clinical work under the supervision of a licensed or certified mental health professional. The qualifications for licensure are similar to those for marriage and family therapists and for clinical social workers.
Views: 1978 The Audiopedia
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean?
 
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What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean? CROP SIMULATION MODEL meaning - CROP SIMULATION MODEL definition - CROP SIMULATION MODEL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A Crop Simulation Model (CSM) is a simulation model that helps estimate crop yield as a function of weather conditions, soil conditions, and choice of crop management practices. Crop simulation models have been classified into three broad categories: Statistical models: These typically rely on yield information for large areas (such as counties), and identify broad trends. The two main trends identified are a secular trend of a gradual increase in crop yield, and variation based on weather conditions. Statistical models are a significant improvement over naive historical predictions, but are not preferred for very fine-grained predictions. Mechanistic models: These attempt to use fundamental mechanisms of plant and soil processes to simulate specific outcomes. These involve fairly detailed and computation-intensive simulations. These models use a continuous evolution and simulating them previously requires a small time step. Functional models: These use simplified closed functional forms to simulate complex processes. They are computationally easier than mechanistic models, and can often give results that are of only somewhat worse accuracy. The Penman equation is an example of an equation that might be used as a component of a functional model. Functional models are typically run using a daily time step and the data is updated daily.
Views: 2084 The Audiopedia
What is PRODUCTION ENGINEERING? What does PRODUCTION ENGINEERING mean?
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is PRODUCTION ENGINEERING? What does PRODUCTION ENGINEERING mean? PRODUCTION ENGINEERING meaning - PRODUCTION ENGINEERING definition - PRODUCTION ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Production Engineering is a combination of manufacturing technology with management science. A production engineer typically has a wide knowledge of engineering practices and is aware of the management challenges related to production. The goal is to accomplish the production process in the smoothest, most-judicious and most-economic way. Production Engineering encompasses the application of castings,machining processing, joining processes, metal cutting & tool design, metrology, machine tools, machining systems, automation, jigs and fixtures, die and mould design, material science, design of automobile parts, and machine designing and manufacturing. Production engineering also overlaps substantially with manufacturing engineering and industrial engineering. In industry, once the design is realized, production engineering concepts regarding work-study, ergonomics, operation research, manufacturing management, materials management, production planning, etc., play important roles in efficient production processes. These deal with integrated design and efficient planning of the entire manufacturing system, which is becoming increasingly complex with the emergence of sophisticated production methods and control systems.
Views: 35807 The Audiopedia
What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean?
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean? INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION meaning - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION definition - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted. With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills. Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended. Attribution is the process in which people look for an explanation of another person's behavior. When someone does not understand another, he/she usually blames the confusion on the other's "stupidity, deceit, or craziness". Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others.
Views: 36159 The Audiopedia
What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning - URBAN DESIGN definition - URBAN DESIGN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Urban design is the process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary subject that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil and municipal engineering. It is common for professionals in all these disciplines to practice in urban design. In more recent times different sub-strands of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, and sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands a good understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography, through to social science, and an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory. Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together creating a vision for an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space (i.e. the 'public environment', 'public realm' or 'public domain'), and the way public places are experienced and used. Public space includes the totality of spaces used freely on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, parks and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory. Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Mitchell Joachim, Jan Gehl, Allan B. Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier (Space syntax), Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Kelvin Campbell.
Views: 5596 The Audiopedia
What is RECEPTIONIST? What does RECEPTIONIST mean? RECEPTIONIST meaning, definition & explanation
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is RECEPTIONIST? What does RECEPTIONIST mean? RECEPTIONIST meaning - RECEPTIONIST pronunciation - RECEPTIONIST definition - RECEPTIONIST explanation - How to pronounce RECEPTIONIST? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A receptionist is an employee taking an office or administrative support position. The work is usually performed in a waiting area such as a lobby or front office desk of an organization or business. The title receptionist is attributed to the person who is employed by an organization to receive or greet any visitors, patients, or clients and answer telephone calls. The term Front Desk is used in many hotels for an administrative department where a receptionist's duties also may include room reservations and assignment, guest registration, cashier work, credit checks, key control as well as mail and message service. Such receptionists are often called front desk clerks. Receptionists cover many areas of work to assist the businesses they work for, including setting appointments, filing, record keeping, and many other office tasks all for the sake of keeping things moving. The business duties of a receptionist may include answering visitors' enquiries about a company and its products or services, directing visitors to their destinations, sorting and handing out mail, answering incoming calls on multi-line telephones or, earlier in the 20th century, a switchboard, setting appointments, filing, records keeping, keyboarding/data entry and performing a variety of other office tasks, such as faxing or emailing. Some receptionists may also perform bookkeeping or cashiering duties. Some, but not all, offices may expect the receptionist to serve coffee or tea to guests, and to keep the lobby area tidy. A receptionist may also assume some security guard access control functions for an organization by verifying employee identification, issuing visitor passes, and observing and reporting any unusual or suspicious persons or activities. A receptionist is often the first business contact a person will meet at any organization. It is an expectation of most organizations that the receptionist maintains a calm, courteous and professional demeanor at all times, regardless of the visitor's behavior. Some personal qualities that a receptionist is expected to possess in order to do the job successfully include attentiveness, a well-groomed appearance, initiative, loyalty, maturity, respect for confidentiality and discretion, a positive attitude and dependability. At times, the job may be stressful due to interaction with many different people with different types of personalities, and being expected to perform multiple tasks quickly. Depending on the industry a receptionist position can have opportunities for networking in order to advance to other positions within a specific field. Some people may use this type of job as a way to familiarize themselves with office work, or to learn of other functions or positions within a corporation. Some people use receptionist work as a way to earn money while pursuing further educational opportunities or other career interests such as in the performing arts or as writers. While many persons working as receptionists continue in that position throughout their careers, some receptionists may advance to other administrative jobs, such as a customer service representative, dispatcher, interviewers, secretary, production assistant, personal assistant, or executive assistant. In smaller businesses, such as a doctor's or a lawyer's office, a receptionist may also be the office manager who is charged with a diversity of middle management level business operations. For example, in the hotel industry, the night-time receptionist's role is almost always combined with performing daily account consolidation and reporting, more particularly known as night auditing. When receptionists leave the job, they often enter other career fields such as sales and marketing, public relations or other media occupations.
Views: 25292 The Audiopedia
What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
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What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean? PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT meaning - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT definition - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Participatory development (PD) seeks to engage local populations in development projects. Participatory development has taken a variety of forms since it emerged in the 1970s, when it was introduced as an important part of the "basic needs approach" to development. Most manifestations of PD seek “to give the poor a part in initiatives designed for their benefit” in the hopes that development projects will be more sustainable and successful if local populations are engaged in the development process. PD has become an increasingly accepted method of development practice and is employed by a variety of organizations. It is often presented as an alternative to mainstream “top-down” development. There is some question about the proper definition of PD as it varies depending on the perspective applied. Two perspectives that can define PD are the "Social Movement Perspective" and the "Institutional Perspective": The "Social Movement Perspective" defines participation as the mobilization of people to eliminate unjust hierarchies of knowledge, power, and economic distribution. This perspective identifies the goal of participation as an empowering process for people to handle challenges and influence the direction of their own lives. Empowerment participation is when primary stakeholders are capable and willing to initiate the process and take part in the analysis. This leads to joint decision making about what should be achieved and how. While outsiders are equal partners in the development effort, the primary stakeholders are primus inter pares, i.e., they are equal partners with a significant say in decisions concerning their lives. Dialogue identifies and analyzes critical issues, and an exchange of knowledge and experiences leads to solutions. Ownership and control of the process rest in the hands of the primary stakeholders. The "Institutional Perspective" defines participation as the reach and inclusion of inputs by relevant groups in the design and implementation of a development project. The “Institutional Perspective” uses the inputs and opinions of relevant groups, or stakeholders in a community, as a tool to achieve a pre-established goal defined by someone external to the community involved. The development project, initiated by an activist external to the community involved, is a process by which problem issues in a community can be divided into stages, and this division facilitates assessment of when and to what degree a participatory approach is relevant. From an institutional perspective, there are four key stages of a development project: Research Stage, Design Stage, Implementation Stage, Evaluation Stage that are defined in later sections of this article. The institutional perspective can also be referred to as a "Project-Based Perspective". Advocates of PD emphasize a difference between participation as “an end in itself”, and participatory development as a “process of empowerment” for marginalized populations. This has also been described as the contrast between valuing participation for intrinsic rather than purely instrumental reasons. In the former manifestation, participants may be asked to give opinions without any assurance that these opinions will have an effect or may be informed of decisions after they have been made. In the latter form, proponents assert that PD tries to “foster and enhance people’s capability to have a role in their society’s development”. Participatory development employed in particular initiatives often involves the process of content creation. For example, UNESCO's Finding a Voice Project employs ICT for development initiatives. Local content creation and distribution contributes to the formation of local information networks. This is a bottom-up approach that involves extensive discussions, conversations, and decision-making with the target community. Community group members create content according to their capacities and interests. This process facilitates engagement with information and communication technology (ICT) with the goal of strengthening individual and social development. This participatory content creation is an important tool for poverty reduction strategies and creating a digitally inclusive knowledge society.
Views: 6333 The Audiopedia
What is PHANTOSMIA? What does PHANTOSMIA mean? PHANTOSMIA meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is PHANTOSMIA? What does PHANTOSMIA mean? PHANTOSMIA meaning - PHANTOSMIA pronunciation - PHANTOSMIA definition - PHANTOSMIA explanation - How to pronounce PHANTOSMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Phantosmia (phantom smell), also called an olfactory hallucination, is smelling an odor that is not actually there. It can occur in one nostril or both. Unpleasant phantosmia, cacosmia, is more common and is often described as smelling burned, foul, spoiled, or rotten. Experiencing occasional phantom smells is normal and usually goes away on its own in time. When hallucinations of this type do not seem to go away or when they keep coming back, it can be very upsetting and can disrupt an individual's quality of life. Olfactory hallucinations can be caused by common medical conditions such as nasal infections, nasal polyps, or dental problems. It can result from neurological conditions such as migraines, head injuries, strokes, Parkinson's disease, seizures, or brain tumors. It can also be a symptom of certain mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, intoxication or withdrawal from drugs and alcohol, or psychotic disorders. Environmental exposures are sometimes the cause as well, such as smoking, exposure to certain types of chemicals (e.g., insecticides or solvents), or radiation treatment for head or neck cancer. A physician can determine if the problem is with the sense of smell (olfactory system) or taste (gustatory system), or if it is caused by a neurological or psychiatric disorder. Phantosmia usually goes away on its own, though this can sometimes be gradual and occur over several years. When caused by an illness (e.g., sinusitis), it should go away when the illness resolves. If the problem persists or causes significant discomfort, a doctor might recommend nasal saline drops, antidepressant or anticonvulsant medications, anesthesia to parts of the nose, or in very rare circumstances, surgical procedures to remove the olfactory nerves or bulbs. The cause of phantosmia can be either peripheral or central, or a combination of the two. The peripheral explanation of this disorder is that rogue neurons malfunction and transmit incorrect signals to the brain or it may be due to the malfunction of the olfactory neurons. The central explanation is that active or incorrectly functioning cells of the brain cause the perception of the disturbing odor. Another central cause is that the perception of the phantom odor usually follows after the occurrence of seizures. The time span of the symptoms usually lasts a few seconds. Other studies on phantosmia patients have found that the perception of the odor initiates with a sneeze, thus they avoid any nasal activity. It has also been found that the perception of the odor is worse in the nostril that is weaker in olfaction ability. It has also been noted that about a quarter of patients suffering from phantosmia in one nostril will usually develop it in the other nostril as well over a time period of a few months or years. Several patients who have received surgical treatment have stated that they have a feeling or intuition that the phantom odor is about to occur, however it does not. This sensation has been supported by positron emission tomography, and it has been found that these patients have a high level of activity in their contralateral frontal, insular and temporal regions. The significance of the activity in these regions is not definitive as not a significant number of patients have been studied to conclude any relation of this activity with the symptoms. However the intensity of the activity in these regions was reduced by excising the olfactory epithelium from the associated nasal cavity.
Views: 7002 The Audiopedia
What is CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY? What does CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY mean?
 
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What is CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY? What does CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY mean? CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY meaning - CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY definition - CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Corporate sustainability is a business approach that creates long-term consumer and employee value by creating a "green" strategy aimed toward the natural environment and taking into consideration every dimension of how a business operates in the social, cultural, and economic environment. It also formulates strategies to build a company that fosters longevity through transparency and proper employee development. Corporate sustainability is an evolution on more traditional phrases describing ethical corporate practice. Phrases such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) or corporate citizenship continue to be used but are increasingly superseded by the broader term corporate sustainability. Unlike phrases that focus on "added-on" policies, corporate sustainability describes business practices built around social and environmental considerations. The phrase is derived from two keys sources. The Brundtland Commission's Report, Our Common Future, described sustainable development as, "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". This desire to grow without damaging future generations' prospects is becoming more and more central to business philosophies. Within more academic management circles, Elkington (1997) developed the concept of the Triple Bottom Line which proposed that business goals were inseparable from the societies and environments within which they operate. Whilst short-term economic gain could be chased, a failure to account for social and environmental impacts would make those business practices unsustainable. Measuring corporate sustainability is possible through composite indicators which aggregate environmental, social, corporate governance and economic measures, e.g. Complex Performance Indicator (CPI). The challenge for many businesses in this new field is to quantify the positive impacts of sustainability. Sustainability can increase revenue, reduce energy expenses, reduce waste expenses, reduce materials and water expenses, increase employee productivity, reduce hiring and attrition expenses, and reduce strategic and operational risks. Furthermore, sustainable business practices may attract talent and generate tax breaks. Transparency deals with the idea that by having an engaging and open environment in the company as well as the community will improve performance and increase profits. It is an open culture that promotes employee involvement in the innovation and creative processes. Reaching out to the community creates a much bigger team is extremely cheap and provides evaluation from all angles. Companies are looking inward and realizing changes must be made to fulfill environment needs such as energy efficiency, limiting product waste and toxicity, and designing innovative products. One way for companies to accomplish this is through open communications with stakeholders characterized by high levels of information disclosure, clarity, and accuracy. Sustainability requires a company to look internally and externally to understand their environmental and social impacts. This requires the engagement of stakeholders to understand impacts and concerns. A business can address sustainability internally by educating employees and seeking to reduce impacts through waste reduction, energy efficiency, etc. Employee engagement can be a powerful motivator by having a philanthropy committee or a green team. As a company looks externally, stakeholders include customers, suppliers, community, and non-government organizations. Companies have adapted by implementing new creative ideas related to sustainability, such as preparing upgraded technology that can transform the product rather than throwing away old materials. New solutions that improve recycling and waste redirecting can ultimately reduce costs and increase profits. For example, Wal-Mart has redirected more than 64 percent of the waste generated by stores and Sam’s Club facilities. In 2009 alone, they recycled more than 1.3 million pounds of aluminum, 120 million pounds of plastics, 11.6 million pounds of mixed paper and 4.6 billion pounds of cardboard. Annually, they expect to save around $20 million and prevent 38 million pounds of waste being sent to landfills. Companies focused on sustainability are appointing chief sustainability officers leading a department with a mandate to proactively develop and implement a corporate sustainability strategy.
Views: 3193 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION? What does INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION mean?
 
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What is INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION? What does INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION mean? INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION meaning - INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION definition - INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: 1. International nongovernmental organizations (I NGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. These include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontieres. 2. Intergovernmental organizations, also known as international governmental organizations (IGO,s): the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization', these are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states). Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (COE), International Labour Organization (ILO), World Trade Organization (WTO) & World Health Organization (WHO). The UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna. The role of international organizations are helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining, providing place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation. International organizations also define the salient issues and decide which issues can be grouped together, thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements.
Views: 7022 The Audiopedia
What is SELF-ACTUALIZATION? What does SELF-ACTUALIZATION mean? SELF-ACTUALIZATION meaning
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is SELF-ACTUALIZATION? What does SELF-ACTUALIZATION mean? SELF-ACTUALIZATION meaning - SELF-ACTUALIZATION definition - SELF-ACTUALIZATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways. The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential. Expressing one's creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to society are examples of self-actualization. In Goldstein's view, it is the organism's master motive, the only real motive: "the tendency to actualize itself as fully as possible is the basic drive... the drive of self-actualization." Carl Rogers similarly wrote of "the curative force in psychotherapy – man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities... to express and activate all the capacities of the organism." The concept was brought most fully to prominence in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are essentially fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place, although he adapted this viewpoint later on in life, and saw it more flexibly. Self-actualization can be seen as similar to words and concepts such as self-discovery, self-reflection, self-realisation and self-exploration. As Abraham Maslow noted, the basic needs of humans must be met (e.g. food, shelter, warmth, security, sense of belonging) before a person can achieve self-actualization – the need to be good, to be fully alive and to find meaning in life. Research shows that when people live lives that are different from their true nature and capabilities, they are less likely to be happy than those whose goals and lives match. For example, someone who has inherent potential to be a great artist or teacher may never realize his/her talents if their energy is focused on attaining the basic needs of humans.
Views: 21933 The Audiopedia
What is COST ACCOUNTING? What does COST ACCOUNTING mean? COST ACCOUNTING meaning & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is COST ACCOUNTING? What does COST ACCOUNTING mean? COST ACCOUNTING meaning - COST ACCOUNTING definition - COST ACCOUNTING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Cost accounting is a process of collecting, recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, allocating and evaluating various alternative courses of action & control of costs. Its goal is to advise the management on the most appropriate course of action based on the cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future. Since managers are making decisions only for their own organization, there is no need for the information to be comparable to similar information from other organizations. Instead, information must be relevant for a particular environment. Cost accounting information is commonly used in financial accounting information, but its primary function is for use by managers to facilitate making decisions. Unlike the accounting systems that help in the preparation of financial reports periodically, the cost accounting systems and reports are not subject to rules and standards like the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP). As a result, there is wide variety in the cost accounting systems of the different companies and sometimes even in different parts of the same company or organization.
Views: 50677 The Audiopedia
What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning
 
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I MAKE CUTE BABIES - https://amzn.to/2S0mT9u What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning - MARINE ENGINEERING definition - MARINE ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering. Specifically, marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer science, to the development, design, operation and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology. It includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, machinery, piping, automation and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines. The purely mechanical ship operation aspect of marine engineering has some relationship with naval architecture. However, whereas naval architects are concerned with the overall design of the ship and its propulsion through the water, marine engineers are focused towards the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of the ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical power generation and electrical power distribution, interior and exterior communication, and other related requirements. In some cases, the responsibilities of each industry collide and is not specific to either field. Propellers are examples of one of these types of responsibilities. For naval architects a propeller is a hydrodynamic device. For marine engineers a propeller acts similarly to a pump. Hull vibration, excited by the propeller, is another such area. Noise control and shock hardening must be the joint responsibility of both the naval architect and the marine engineer. In fact, most issues caused by machinery are responsibilities in general. Not all marine engineering is concerned with moving vessels. Offshore construction, also called offshore engineering, maritime engineering, is concerned with the technical design of fixed and floating marine structures, such as oil platforms and offshore wind farms. Oceanographic engineering is concerned with mechanical, electrical, and electronic, and computing technology deployed to support oceanography, and also falls under the umbrella of marine engineering, especially in Britain, where it is covered by the same professional organisation, the IMarEST.
Views: 24933 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean?
 
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Do you travel a lot? Get yourself a mobile application to find THE CHEAPEST airline tickets deals available on the market: ANDROID - http://android.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - http://iphone.theaudiopedia.com or get BEST HOTEL DEALS worldwide: ANDROID - htttp://androidhotels.theaudiopedia.com - IPHONE - htttp://iphonehotels.theaudiopedia.com What is EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean? EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP meaning - EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP definition - EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. School leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, pupils, and parents toward achieving common educational aims. This term is often used synonymously with educational leadership in the United States and has supplanted educational management in the United Kingdom. Several universities in the United States offer graduate degrees in educational leadership. Certain obstacles of educational leadership can be overcome. A self-assessment technique can help examine equity and justice that affects student diversity, especially with selection of candidates. The term school leadership came into currency in the late 20th century for several reasons. Demands were made on schools for higher levels of pupil achievement, and schools were expected to improve and reform. These expectations were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. Maintenance of the status quo was no longer considered acceptable. Administration and management are terms that connote stability through the exercise of control and supervision. The concept of leadership was favored because it conveys dynamism and pro-activity. The principal or school head is commonly thought to be the school leader; however, school leadership may include other persons, such as members of a formal leadership team and other persons who contribute toward the aims of the school. While school leadership or educational leadership have become popular as replacements for educational administration in recent years, leadership arguably presents only a partial picture of the work of school, division or district, and ministerial or state education agency personnel, not to mention the areas of research explored by university faculty in departments concerned with the operations of schools and educational institutions. For this reason, there may be grounds to question the merits of the term as a catch-all for the field. Rather, the etiology of its use may be found in more generally and con-temporarily experienced neo-liberal social and economic governance models, especially in the United States and the United Kingdom. On this view, the term is understood as having been borrowed from business. In the United States, the superintendency, or role of the chief school administrator, has undergone many changes since the creation of the position—which is often attributed to the Buffalo Common Council that approved a superintendent on June 9, 1837. If history serves us correctly, the superintendency is about 170 years old with four major role changes from the early 19th century through the first half of the 20th century and into the early years of the 21st century. Initially, the superintendent's main function was clerical in nature and focused on assisting the board of education with day-to-day details of running the school. At the turn of the 20th century, states began to develop common curriculum for public schools with superintendents fulfilling the role of teacher-scholar or master educator who had added an emphasis on curricular and instructional matters to school operations. In the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution affected the superintendent's role by shifting the emphasis to expert manager with efficiency in handling non-instructional tasks such as budget, facility,and transportation. The release of A Nation at Risk in 1983 directly impacted public school accountability and, ultimately, the superintendency. The early 1980s initiated the change that has continued through today with the superintendent viewed as chief executive officer, including the roles of professional adviser to the board, leader of reforms, manager of resources and communicator to the public. The term "educational leadership" is also used to describe programs beyond schools. Leaders in community colleges, proprietary colleges, community-based programs, and universities are also educational leaders.
Views: 8804 The Audiopedia
What is INDEPENDENT STUDY? What does INDEPENDENT STUDY mean? INDEPENDENT STUDY meaning
 
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What is INDEPENDENT STUDY? What does INDEPENDENT STUDY mean? INDEPENDENT STUDY meaning - INDEPENDENT STUDY definition - INDEPENDENT STUDY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Independent study is a form of education offered by many high schools, colleges, and other educational institutions. It is sometimes referred to as directed study, and is an educational activity undertaken by an individual with little to no supervision. Typically a student and professor or teacher agree upon a topic for the student to research with guidance from the instructor for an agreed upon amount of credits. Independent studies provide a way for well-motivated students to pursue a topic of interest that does not necessarily fit into a traditional academic curriculum. They are a way for students to learn specialized material or gain research experience. Also, independent studies provide students opportunities to explore their interests deeper and make important decisions about how and where they will direct their talents in the future. Another way to understand independent study is to understand learning from a distance. Learning from a distance is a theory in which the student is at a physical or a mental distance from his or her teacher. The student and the teacher are connected by something such as a worksheet, an essay, or through a website on the internet. For elementary and junior high, independent study is sometimes a Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) program, where the student must research the topic and formulate and answer questions. At the end, they develop and present a product, although not all GATE systems participate in this. Many charter schools in the US provide independent study and homeschooling in a variety of formats: online, in-person or a hybrid of online/in-person interaction. These independent study programs are particularly helpful for those who find a traditional classroom setting to be unsatisfactory. For example, independent study is ideal for those who have children, health issues, intense work schedules, or gifted academic ability. Often students with high scholastic standing are encouraged to take independent studies to try to learn without attendance in a class. Independent study is also useful for self-directed learning activities that allow the student to be self-reliant. A program titled "The Research Experiences for Undergraduates" (REU) has been founded by the National Science Foundation which provides funding for undergraduates to engage in different areas of research outside of the classroom. Groups are formed of graduates, undergraduates, and faculty to work on a specific research project. Studies have shown that personality can influence whether a person enjoys an independent study project, rather than lectures. People that believe the teacher should be authoritarian did not perform well in independent studies. Personality, however, should not solely dictate who is allowed to receive independent study. Though not afforded the same attention as individual personality on behalf of the potential student, some interest should be given to the teachers and or professor's ability to relate to the distance learner. Breaking the mold of in class instruction versus the distance learner can be a difficult task to undertake by the instructor. They are not the same environment and changes and or accommodations should be made while keeping integrity of the overall class.
Views: 6116 The Audiopedia
What is SEROLOGY? What does SEROLOGY mean? SEROLOGY meaning, definition & explanation
 
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Support The Audiopedia by using it's Official Android app. INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 What is SEROLOGY? What does SEROLOGY mean? SEROLOGY meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection (against a given microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease). Serological tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes when an infection is suspected, in rheumatic illnesses, and in many other situations, such as checking an individual's blood type. Serology blood tests help to diagnose patients with certain immune deficiencies associated with the lack of antibodies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In such cases, tests for antibodies will be consistently negative. There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. These include: ELISA, agglutination, precipitation, complement-fixation, and fluorescent antibodies. Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can also be performed on other bodily fluids such as semen and saliva, which have (roughly) similar properties to serum. Serological tests may also be used in forensic serology, specifically for a piece of evidence (e.g., linking a rapist to a semen sample).
Views: 34917 The Audiopedia

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